JK 2357 1912 M & Class, Book, THE BEQUEST OF DANIEL MURRAY WASHINGTON. D. C. 1Q25 THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND HE AFRO -AMERICAN ■ 2£. A Book of Fad:s and Figures BY CYRUS FIELD ADAMS HE REPUBLICAN PARTY IS THE SHIP; ALL ELSE IS THE SEA." — Frederick Douglass. Ujs^i.krrX: ISSUED BY THE REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE 1912 FOREWORD ^ h 3-35 7 The purpose of this little book is to present in concise and portable form a few facts and figures concerning the Afro-American and his relation to the two great political parties of the country. The word "two" is used advisedly, for the present one-man party has no past and will have no future. With his elimination in November it will disappear. It is, of course impossible to tell the whole story in a mere pamphlet, but enough is given to show that the Eepublican party from its inception has been the friend of the race and that all helpful legislation has been the work of that party; that the Democratic party has ever been the enemy of the Afro- American people and the author of all legislation inimical to the race, from the infamous Black Codes of 1865 to the disfranchising Southern Constitutions and jim-crow laws of the present decade. Quotations from leading men and newspapers of both parties clearly show the friendly attitude of the Eepublicans and the hostile attitude of the Democrats toward the Afro-Americans. The tables showing the number of Afro-Americans serving under the Federal Government will be a revelation to the majority of the people. They represent careful research and extensive correspondence and are accurate so far as they go, but are not complete, as returns are still coming in from all parts of the country. The true figures would be much larger than those given. It is a remarkable fact that the number of Afro-American government employees has increased 60 per cent in the three and one-half years of the Taft Administration and the aggregate annual pay has increased from $8,000,000 in 1908 to nearly $12,500,000 in 1912, an increase of 55 per cent. Verily the Taft Administration stands for a square deal in deeds, not words. The book contains the portraits of twenty Afro-Americans who have been honored by the Eepublican party, by appointments to high places in the Government service by Eepublican presidents. This in itself is an object lesson of the interest of the Eepublican party in the Afro- American people. Herein is presented in plain facts and figures, what the Eepublican party has accomplished for the Afro-American. The record of the Democratic party is also given, which proves that its succession to the control of the National Government would be a menace to the civil and political rights of the race. The action of Theodore Eoosevelt in barring Southern Afro-American delegates from his convention at Chicago, is virtually a stand in favor of the repeal of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and makes the support of the Bull Moose Party by the race, impossible. The i of ton, D, C, 1925. THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND THE AFRO-AMERICAN. The real cause of the great civil war was the desire for the extension and perpetuation of that great blot upon the escutcheon of our country, human slavery. Prior to .the adveut of Abraham Lincoln and the Eepublican party, about 4,000,000 Afro- Americans were held in bondage in the Southern States then as now con- trolled by the Democrats and when the Kepublican party elected Abraham Lincoln President, thus setting the stamp of disapproval upon the Democratic desires, these Democratic Southern states seceded from the Union and attempted to set up a confederacy with human slavery as the chief corner stone. The Eepublican party determined that the confederacy should be destroyed, that the Union should be preserved; and true to its principles and in keeping with his own declarations the Great Emancipator struck the shackles from the limbs of the bondmen. Following the freedom of the slaves, came their enlistment in the army and navy of the Union, and by this act the names of nearly 200,000 Afro- Americans were added to the honor roll of those who fought for their country in the civil war. The leaders of the Eepublican party, ■ feeling that their work was far from completion, framed and passed the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Federal Constitution, and the states ratified their action, thus making slavery impossible and confirming the civil and political rights of the Afro- American people. Clothed by the Eepublican party with the right to vote, is it surprising that thejse newly made citizens voted with the party which had taken them from their for(mer position as mere chattels and made them citizens of the great Eepublic? Through the Eepublican party, Douglass, Bruce, Langston, Dunn, Pinchback, Eainey, Eevels, Lewis, Delaney, Smalls and scores of other national characters many o f them former slaves, rose to eminence impossible without its aid in the period following the slaveholders' rebellion, and in the present day the Eepublican party has giv^en many Afro- Americans political prominence and recognition which they can obtain from no other party. The Democratic party has never produced any really great Afro-Americans. / The Eepublican party stands firmly against disfranchisement. No State con- trolled by Eepublicans has disfranchised the Afro-American. j The Eepublican party has taken a firm stand against jimcrow legislation and no Stjjite controlled by Eepublicans has ever passed a jimcrow or segregation law. j In the matter of public education the difference between the two parties is marked. In the North, where the Eepublicans generally control, education among the colored people is widely diffused, while in the Democratic South the percentage of illiteracy is great. The Democratic legislators fail to provide equal school facilities for the two races, and in several states the facilities, already meagre, have been recently materially reduced. In Louisiana no Afro-American child receives public instruction above the fifth grade, and there is a general movement throughout the Southern Democratic States to confine the education of the Afro-American children to the lower grades. The mot^ement to divide the school money between whites and Afro- Americans in proportion to - their contributions in taxes to the school fund arises in one Democratic Southern State after another, the purpose of which is to perpetuate Afro-American illiteracy. The Eepublican party believes that' the door of hope and opportunity should not be closed against any man, and this is especially evidenced by the fact that more than 22,000 Afro-Americans are in the service of the Government, drawing salaries aggregating nearly $12,500,000 per annum. I There can be no question in the mind of any honorable, right thinking, sane Afro-American as to which party he should support in this campaign. No truer sentiment has ever been uttered than that of the great Douglass, when he said: THE EEPUBLICAN PAETY IS THE SHIP; ALL ELSE IS THE SEA. 3 WILLIAM HOWAKD TAFT President op the United States. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT. The Kepublican party made no mistake when William Howard Taft was renomi- nated for the Presidency. ,. He deserves reelection because of the great achievements of his administra- tion. He has shown sober judgment and broad statesmanship. He is a man of the people, his public record is clean and he stands for policies which mean the continued progress of the Nation. The Afro-Americans of the United States have a friend in Mr. Taft. He has shown his interest in so many ways. He inherited his open sympathy for the race from his father, Judge Alphonso Taft, than whom the Afro-American never had a better friend. President Taft stands for the enforcement of the War Amendments. He says he believes "that equal justice to all men and the fair and impartial enforcement of these amendments are in keeping with the real American spirit of fair play. ' ' President Taft gave his active support to the Maryland Eepublicans when they were opposing the attempts of the Democrats in that State to disfranchise the Afro- American citizens, and some credit for the defeat of the nefarious scheme should be accorded to him. ^President Taft has vigorously denounced lynching. In many public utterances he has called it cowardly murder. In a recent address he said that "the men en- gaged in pulling the rope, under those conditions shall themselves swing by the rope. ' ' President Taft has done much toward obliterating the foul practice of peonage or involuntary slavery so common in the Southern Democratic States. President Taft stands for the higher education of the Afro- American. He has given Howard University his enthusiastic personal and official support. He has publicly stated his belief that higher education is essential to the full development of the race. Afew years ago Mr. Taft was appointed a trustee of the Jeannes fund for the education of the poor Afro-Americans in the country districts of the South, and his acceptance of the trust is an evidence of his sympathy for the poor and downtrodden. He is also one of the trustees of Hampton Institute, which is devoted to the education of the head, heart and hand. President Taft has paid high tribute to the Afro-American people for the great progress made m education and industry and has lauded the high ideals of the race. f + J°v,- P r S l de « T^ 1111 ^.^ ^ ven credit for having appointed an Afro- American to the highest office yet attained by one of the race. He did an unprecedented thing wnen he named a colored man as Assistant Attorney General of the United States. There are more Afro- Americans in the public service under President Taft than ever before in the history of the country. The increase since 1908, according to the figures given out at that time, has been about 60 per cent, and there are now m round numbers about twenty-two thousand colored men in the service of the United States Government and their annual salaries aggregate nearly $12,500,000. < President Taft has given a number of Afro-Americans good places under the civil service by executive order specifying in one case that it was done because the race did not have proper representation in the State. President Taft has in many public utterances expressed his deep sympathv for the soul sufferings of the Afro-American people. y Addressing an immense audience some years ago. Mr. Taft said: < 'I am fully alive to the heart pangs that a colored man endures when suffering from the contemptuous insults of white men not at all his equal, either in point of intelligence or devotion to duty. I know the sense of injustice that has often- times burned itself into his breast when he realizes that his rights have been trampled upon^ and his claims to fair treatment rejected solely because of the JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT SHEEMAN Vice-President op the United States. JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT SHERMAN. James Schoolcraft Sherman, who has been renominated for Vice President of the United States, is by profession a lawyer. A graduate of Hamilton College, near his home at Utica, N. Y., in 1878, he received the degree of doctor of laws from that institution. He was admitted to the bar two years after graduation, practiced in his native city and was elected mayor of Utica in 1884. He was elected to Congress in 1887 and except an interval of two years— 1891 and 1893 — was continuously re-elected up to 1908, when he was elected Vice Presi- dent of the United States. His record in office is a good one. Mr. Sherman has been a consistant friend of the Afro-American ever since his entrance into public life, and in his public utterances he has made many strong pleas for the advancement of the race along all lines of human endeavor. Vice President Sherman was formally notified of his renomination at his home in Utica, N. Y., on August 21. In accepting the vice-presidential nomination Mr. Sherman said, in part: "Our party has never before conferred, a second nomination for the office of Vice President upon any man. This distinction was not sought by me, but unsolicited, it is the more appreciated. As a loyal republican I stand squarely upon the party platform. I approve of the admirable statement of republican principles and achievements made in the address accepting the nomination for President by William Howard Taft. Upon that platform and associated with President Taft, I gratefully accept the re-nomination. "Our opponents are divided into two camps, rivaling each other in their efforts to excel in disturbing the civic and economic order of the country. The new party thrusts itself forward into the vacuum left by the phantoms of other third parties which have passed into oblivion. Oblivion, too awaits it. The democratic party in the nation has many times defeated its republican rival in August; but twice has it done so in November. ' ' "We ask that the republican party and its candidate be tried upon the record of service and accomplishments. We near the end of President Taft's first term of service with our government at amity with all foreign powers, amid domestic tran- quility and with our people blessed by prosperity and abundance; our navy among the foremost of the world; our army in a high degree of excellence; our postal service, for the first time in its history, self-sustaining; the colossal dream of the centuries, an isthmian canal, almost a completed reality; our foreign and domestic commerce in a condition of activity, vigor and health, meeting the desires of the most optimistic, and every department of the government rendering proper and efficient aid to law-abiding citizens in every calling. Confident that the American people are not yet willing to destroy and discard the Constitution which has stood the test of more than a century, that they have not yet forgotten the direful result of the mistake of 1892, we calmly await the ides of November." In his speech accepting the Eepublican nomination for the Vice Presidency in 1908; Mr. Sherman said: "As a Nation our duty compels that by every constitutional and reasonable means the material and educational condition of the colored race be advanced. This we owe to ourselves as well as to them. As the result of a course of events that can never be reversed, they are a part of our civilization; their prosperity is our prosperity their debasement would be our misfortune. "The Eepublican party, therefore, will offer every encouragement to the thrift, industry and intelligence that will better their prospect of higher attainment. ' ' I emphasize as my party's creed and my faith that in legislation and adminis- tration favor should be extended to no class, no sect, no race. To foster class hatred, to foster discontent, is un-Eepublican and un-American. Our party stands on the declaration that all men are created with equal rights, and it will have no part in the enactment or execution of any law that does not apply alike to all good Ameri- can citizens. Under the Taft Administration there are 22,000 Afro-Americans in the public service of the country and they receive nearly $12,500,000 in salaries annually. The Afro-Americans will never be beguiled by the smooth talk of the Demo- cratic spellbinders. THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. Reaffirms the Intention of the Republican Party to Uphold the Courts. Con- demns Lynching and Lawlessness of Every Kind. ' ' The Eepublican party reaffirms its intention to uphold the integrity of the courts, both State and Federal, and it will ever insist that their powers to enforce their processes and to protect life, liberty and property shall be preserved inviolate. " ' ' We call upon the people to quicken their interest in public affairs, to condemn and punish lynchings and other forms of lawlessness, and to strengthen in all possible ways a respect for law and an observance of it." Everything which benefits the American people as a whole must necessarily benefit the Afro-American as well as all other classes which make up the composite American citizenship and all of the policies of the Eepublican party as formulated in the plat- form adopted at Chicago mean much for the average American. There are, however, two planks, as given above, which are of great importance to the colored man, although they are not race planks, but because the race suffers many injustices through the inability or failure of the courts to protect life, liberty and property and also because Afro- Americans are in the majority of instances the helpless victims of the lynchings which disgrace our country. TAFT FOR THE CONSTITUTION AS IT IS. On August 1, President Taft was formally notified of his selection, by the Eepublican National Convention, which met in Chicago, Illinois, June 18-22, as the regular Eepublican nominee for President. The ceremonies took place in the East Eoom of the White House in the presence of about three hundred of the most prominent Eepublicans in the country. A number of Afro-Americans were among those present as guests. At the conclusion of the programme an imformal -reception was held, after which all of the guests were entertained at luncheon by President and Mrs. Taft. Senator Elihu Eoot made the notification address. Extracts from President Tafts Speech of Acceptance. ' ' The Eepublican Party stands for the Constitution as it is, with such amend- ments adopted according to its provisions as new conditions thoroughly understood may require. We believe that it has stood the test of time and that there have been disclosed really no serious defects in its operation. It is said that this is not an issue in the campaign. It seems to me it is the supreme issue. ' ' Votes are not bread, constitutional amendments are not work, ref erendums do not pay rent or furnish houses, recalls do not furnish clothing, initiatives do not supply employment or relieve inequalities of condition or of opportunity. "We do not know any way to avoid human injustice but to perfect our laws for administering justice, to develop the morality of the individual, to give direct super- vision and aid to those who are, and are likely to be, oppressed, and to give as full scope as possible to individual effort and its reward. The Eepublican Party is the nucleus of that public opinion which favors constant progress and development along safe and sane lines and under the Constitution, as we have had it for more than one hundred years, and which believes in the main- tenance of an independent judiciary as the keystone of our liberties. "The great majority of voters will be able to distinguish between the substance of performance and the mere fustian of promise; they will be able to see that those who would deliberately stir up discontent and create hostility toward those who are conducting legitimate enterprises and who represent the business progress of the country are sowing dragon's teeth. " May we not expect in the issues which are now before us that the ballots cast in November shall show a prevailing majority in favor of sound progress, great prosperity upon a protective baisis, and under true constitutional and representa- tive rule by the people? 8 KEYNOTE OF CAMPAIGN. Chairman Charles D. Hilles of the Republican National Committee Sounds the Keynote of the Presidential Campaign. "The Eepublican party approaches the Presidential campaign with confidence iD the solemnity of its course and in the integrity and ability of the candidates who represent that cause. Progress with order is good doctrine for the Eepublican party to day, as it has been since the day of its birth. 1 ' Eeal progress is not a theory but an achievement. No American citizen should be deceived into an exchange of his birthright for a vision. The progress of the nation toward better things does not come from declamation, but from actual results. More has been accomplished in the last three years under the administration of President Taft than was ever before accomplished by an American President in the same period of time. "A distinct line of demarcation' between the Republican party and the Dem- cratic party is revealed in the platforms adopted at Chicago and Baltimore. Oup is an earnest of future progress through a record of achievement; the other is a promise containing a denial of the good that has been done. "Upon the solid rock of the rights of the individual as granted by the Con- stitution, the Eepublican party builds its structure of optimisn. The Democratic party, on the other hand, in the opening sentence of its address to the electorate, betrays its recessional quality by denying the ri^ht of Conpress, a ripht a^ain and again confirmed by the Supreme Court, to establish protective duties for the benefit of American industries. It declares as false the vital issue of the constitutional libeitjes of the individual. Such liberties are now assailed by those who advocate the overthrow of the independence of the judiciary. It would leave the individual defenseless in the protection of those rights declared inalienable under the Consti- tution. "---Statement of Hon. Charles D. Hilles, on July 10, 1912, when he accepted the Chairmanship of the Eepublican National Committee. DEMOCRATIC PROMISES BROKEN. The Southern States were re-admitted to the Union in 1868, after the Civil "War, and it was expressly provided that no state should ever abridge the right of any voter. The Act passed July 28, 1868, was as follows: "That each of the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, shall be entitled and admitted to representation in Congress as a state of the Union when the legislature of such state shall have duly ratified the amendments to the Constitution of the United States proposed by the 39th Con- gress, known as Article 14, upon the following fundamental conditions: That the Constitution of neither of said states shall be so amended or changed as to deprive any citizen or class of citizens of the United States of the right to vote in said state, who are entitled to vote by the Constitution thereof, herein recognized, except for the punishment of such crimes as are now felonies at common law, whereof they shall have been convicted under laws equally applicable to the inhabitants of all the States. ' ' Several of the States named have passed laws restricting the right of suffrage and in every Southern state the laws are administered in such a way as to debar thousands of men from exercising their rights as citizens, because their skins are black. This is not only acknowledged but approved by Bryan, Hoke Smith, Vardaman, Tillman, Donaghey and other Democratic leaders. The Southern States were re-admitted to the Union on the fundamental condition that they would never amend or change their Constitutions so as to deprive any citizen or class of citizens of the United States of the right to vote. It was a sacred obligation. Have they kept it? Can the Democrats who have deliberately broken their promises be trusted? The election of Woodrow Wilson, Southern born and Southern bred, his mind filled with Southern Democratic traditions, can bring no possible good to the Afro American. "Let us hold fast to that which we know is good." The progress of the Afro-American people in 50 years of freedom has been greater than that of any other race, similarly environed, recorded in history. A great deal of this progress should be credited to the Republican party. e<*« ■ 9 THE AFRO-AMERICAN AND THE TWO PARTIES. Gems of Rhetoric and Oratory From the Pens and Tongues of Great Republi- cans of the Country in Favor of the Race. Vile Utterances of Some Democrats which Show that the Ascendency of the Democratic Party Would be a Menace to the Race. REPUBLICAN SENTIMENTS. Gems from President Taft. "I am fully alive to the heart pangs that a colored man endures when suffer- ing from the contemptuous insults of white men not at all his equal, either in point of intelligence or devotion to duty. I know the sense of injustice that has often times burned itself into his breast when he realizes that his rights have been trampled upon and his claims to fair treatment rejected solely because of the color of his skin. — Speech of Mr. Taft before A. M. E. Conference, Cin- cinnati, 1908. ****** ''I believe in the higher education of the Negro so that the leaders of the Ne- gro race may have high ideals, and I be- lieve they have. I believe that they sub- scribe, as perhaps some others in our community life do not, to the majesty of the law and have respect for consti- tuted authority." (Hearty applause.) — President at Howard University Meeting. ****** "I want to add that I always want to say hefore an Afro-American audience that you are Americans. The idea of transplanting you is utterly absurd. The only Hag you know is the Stars and Stripes, and you are of a race that has given up their lives and moistened the ground with their blood in defense of that flag, and will continue to do so." — Address of President Taft at Y. M. C. A., Augusta. C.a. ** * * * * * •I know the burdens you have to bear. 1 can understand the disadvantages under which you labor. I know of your suitor- mental and otherwise, and humilia- l .an understand what they are and how hard they are to bear, but I want you to know that there are a lot of good people in this world, who sym- pathize deeply with you and are anxious to help yon in your hard course." — From speech of President Taft at (Jeor gia Industrial School, Savannah, Ga.. May 1. 1912. DEMOCRATIC SENTIMENTS. Intelligent Negro Disturbing Influ- ence. ' ' The uneducated Negro is a good Negro; he is contented to occupy the natural status of his race, the position of inferiority. The educated and intelli- gent Negro, who wants to vote, is a dis- turbing and threatening influence. We don't want him down here; let him go North. I favor, and if elected will urge with all my power, the elimination of the Negro from politics. ' ' — Hoke Smith, United States Senator from Georgia. "Turn the African Tree Climbers Out." Go down to the Pension Office and take out the Africans. Then go down to the War and Navy Building and take those black sons of the cocoanut region, who sit there with big brown drops of sweat coming out of their foreheads, kick them out * * * turn this brood of Afri- can tree climbers out to earn a living on the farms and in the fields. — Congressman Roddenbery (Democrat) of Georgia, in a speech in House of Representatives, April 10, 1912. Will Never Agree That Races are Equal. "Every Negro must understand here, now, right off, once and forever, that the Southern people will never, even for an instant agree that the black race is qual of the white." — New Orleans Times-Democrat. Granting Suffrage a Crime 10 ' ' The granting of the right of suf- frage to the Negroes, en masse, was a crime and blunder. Take away the suf- frage from the Negro as it is disallowed to other of our 'colored' citizens." — Bishop T. F. Gailor, of Tennessee. THE AFRO-AMERICAN AND THE TWO PARTIES "Dishonor Him is to Dishonor the Republic Itself." ' ' Ceasing to be a slave, the former vic- tim has become not only a man but a citi- zen, admitted alike within the pale of hu- manity and within the pale of citizenship. As a man he is entitled to all the rights of man, as a citizen he becomes a mem- ber of our common household, with equal- ity as the prevailing law. No longer an African, he is an American; no longer a slave, he is common part of a Repub- lic, owing to it patriotic allegiance in return for protection of equal laws. In- sult him is to insult an American citizen. Dishonor him is to dishonor the Ee- public itself. Our rights are his rights; our equality his equality; our privileges and immunities are his great freehold." — Chaeles Sumner. Inspired by Lincoln's Tomb. "I am glad to be at the home of the martyred President. His name is an inspiration and a holy one to all lovers of liberty the world over. He saved the Union. He liberated a race — a race which he once said ought to be free be- cause there might come a time when these black men could keep the jewel of liberty within the family of freedom. If any vindication of that act or of that pro- phecy were needed, it was found when those brave black men ascended the hill at San Juan in Cuba and charged the enemy at El Caney (great applause). They vindicated their own title to lib- erty on that field and with our other brave soldiers gave the priceless gift of liberty to another suffering race." President McKinley at .Lincoln's tomb, Springfield, Illinois, October 15, 1898. Efforts to Degrade Must Be Fought. ' ' The time is ripe for serving notice od. the country that further efforts in any section of the land to degrade the Afro- American to a servile position; to create that impossible thing, a Republic with millio3|S of persons taxed but not repre- sented] shall be fought from now on. Leave the murdering in cold blood to the race that proudjjf calls itself superior, the better civilized. r ' — Osvrald Garrison Villard, Editor New York Evening Post. If Necessary Every Negro Will be Lynched. "How is the white man going to con- trol the government? The way we do it is to pass laws to fit the white man and make the other people (Negroes) come to them. * * * If it is necessary every Negro in the state will be lynched; it will be done to maintain white supre- macy. * * * The Fifteenth Amend- ment ought to be wiped out. We all agree on that; then why don't we do it? — Ex-Governor James K. Vardaman of Mississippi, now U. S. Senator-elect. Senator Tillman's Boast. "I know nothing about other states, but I acknowledge openly and boldly in the sight of God that we did our level best to keep every Negro in our state from voting. We stuffed ballot boxes, we shot Negroes; we are not ashamed of it. ; ; — Senator Tillman in the United States Senate. Bryan on "Brotherhood. "The white man in thr d South has dis- franchised the negro i T Jt self -protection ; and there is not a "Republican in the North who would not have done the same thing under the sarnie circumstances. The white men of the South are determined that the negro w.'ill and shall be disfran- chised everywhere it is necessary to pre- vent the recurrence of the horrors of carpetbag role. ; ' — William Jennings Bry- an in speech at New York in 1908. Determined to Nullify Amendments. "Thpj white people of the Southern states where the Negroes constitute a large proportion of the population are determined to nullify the 14th amend- ment to the Constitution of the United. States so far as tney can. White people of the South are going to rule without regard to numbers or Federal laws. They are the superior race, the only race that is fit to control the government of any country, whether it be the United States, the Philippines, the West Indies or Africa itself. ' ' — Memphis Democratic Daily Paper. 11 "Mississippi is governed by white men although the majority of the population is composed of Negroes. The Negro cuts no figure in our politics. — Ex-Gov- ernor Noel of Mississippi. AFRO-AMERICANS IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE. In Round Numbers There are More Than 22.000 Afro-Americans in the Service of the United States Government and Their Annual Salaries Aggregate Nearly $12,500/200. The statement has been made that there are fewer Afro- Americans in the service of the Government under President Taft than under previous Kepublican administra- tions. The facts refute the statement. On July l, 1912, there were more Afro-Ameri- cans in the service of the United States Government under the Taft Administration ~ver before in the history of the country. That their official positions and occu- pations are many and varied is shown by the following list of official designations : Assistant Attorney General,, agent in tick eradication, agricultural agents, anaes- thetist, architects, army paymaster's clerk, artisans, assistant director of domestic art, assistant director of domestic science, assistant director of kindergartens, assistant director of music, assistant director of physical culture, assistant director of primary instruction, doorkeeper, assistant engineers, assistant keeper of scales, assistant libra- rian, assistant messenger, assistant nurses, assistant pharmacy tant post masters. assistant superintendent of construction, assistant superintendent of nurses, assistant superintendent of schools, assistant weighers, attendants, assistant surgeon-in-chief, attendance officer, attorneys, auditor for the navy, bailiff, blacksmith foremen, boatmen bookbinders, bookkeepers, captain, carriage drivers, caster helpers, cashiers, cement fin- isher, chaplains, charwomen, chief messenger, chief musicians, chiefs of divisions, clean ers, cle-ks, coal passers, collaborators, collectors of customs, collectors of internal reve- nue, consul, consular agents, consul general, cook, counters, counter in charge, custo- .dians, custodian 01 presses, darners, dental inspectors, deputies, deputy collectors of cus^jns, deputy collectors of internal revenue, deputy stamp clerk, deputy United States marshals, director of domestic art, director of domestic science, director of kindergarten,- director of music, director of physical culture, director of primary instruction, district attorney, domestics, draughtsmen, electrotype molder 's apprentice, elevator conductors, engineers, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary. examiner, examiners of merchandise, farm demonstrators, farmers, fireman helpers, firemen, floor hands), folders, foreman brick burner, foreman brick mason, freight handler, gaugers, guards, head cooks, heads of departments, first lieutenants, head waiter, helpers, hospiti.il orderlies, hydraulic presser, immigrant inspectors, imposers, ink carrier, inspectors od customs, janitors, keeper of scales, laboratory assistants, laborers laundresses. launcTrymen, letter carriers, lieutenant colonel, machine operators, maids, major, medical inspector, messengers, messenger boys, mimeograph operators, minister resident and consul general, monotype operators, musicians, night inspectors, night supervisor of nurses, nurses, oilers, operatives, packers, painters, patent exam- iners, pharmacist, pay clerks. plVimber. policemen, press cleaners, press feeders, press- men, private secretaries, principal's of high schools, private secretary to congressman, pulp macerator. principal of normal! school, principals of public schools, railway postal clerks, receivers of public moneys, recorder of deeds, registers of land offices, register of the treasury, revenue agents, rural carriers, samplers, seamstresses, second cook, sewers, shippers, secretary of legation, skilled laborers, special agents, special assistant attorneys, stablemen, stenographers, stewards, storekeepeer, substitute carriers, sub- stitute 'clerks, sugar samplers, superintendents, superintendent of carriers, superin- tendents of construction, superintendent of home school, supervisor of Indian schools, supervising principals of schools, teachers, teamsters, third cook, timekeepers, trans- lators, typewriters, van drivers, vice consul, vice consul general, vice and deputy consul and clerk, wagon drivers, wagon messengers, waiters, waste paper snorters, watchmen weighers, wrappers. The highest salary paid an Afro- American is received by the Envoy Extraordi- nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Haiti, whose salary is $10*000 per annum. A number of government officials receive from $2,500 to $5,000 per year. Clerks are paid from $900 to $1,800. According to the figures given out in 1908, there were 13,978 Afro-Americans in the service of the Federal Government and their annual salaries aggregated $8,032,355. As the number of Afro-Americans now in the Government service is 22.440 and their aggregate annual salaries 812,456,760 it is evident thai there has been an increase of more tharj 60 per cent in thp number of Afro- Americans employed and an in- crease of 55 per cent in the amount of salaries received under the Administration „f president Taft. Afro- American officers, clerks, and other employees in the service of the United States Government, September 1, 1912. The White House Departmental Service, Washington, D. C. : State Treasury War Navy Post Office Interior Justice Agriculture Commerce and Labor Washington Navy Yard Government Printing Office Interstate Commerce Commission United States Senate, including Office Building Library of Congress Washington, D. C, City Post Office District of Columbia Government, including unskilled la- borers Miscellaneous Departmental Service at large: State (Diplomatic and Consular) Treasury War Post Office Interior Agriculture Commerce and Labor United States Army, officers United States Army, enlisted men United States Navy, enlisted men United States Navy, yards and stations Miscellaneous, including unclassified Total Recapitulation by localities: Foreign Stations (Diplomatic and ConsuI ar ) Washington, D. C . New York City Chicago, Illinois ./ Boston, Mass ....... Cincinnati, Ohio Richmond, Virginia Jackson, Mississippi Mobile, Alabama ' Indianapolis, Indiana St. Louis, Missouri [\ '.'.'.'.'. Louisville, Kentucky At miscellaneous points. Total No. 27 26 926 170 74 187 593 43 164 139 364 634 41 115 46 173 2,413 194 16 1,082 2,^2 3,599 31 102 64 11 4,416 1,529 2,146 775 22,440 16 6,327 635 670 91 56 86 33 63 40 195 98 14,130 22,440 Salaries. $19,302 19,360 588,801 130,380 52,610 118,173 358,112 26,640 89,816 94,800 228,454 434,856 22,080 73,100 24,920 174,600 1,479,000 104,1J^ 38,410 743,373 1,075,320 2,807,134 25,738 53,217 42,612 28,455 1,133,766 678,050 1,210,070 581,515 $12,456,760 $38,410 4,089,118 599,394 588,902 86,491 49,840 78,540 29,220 60,173 30,460 167,020 86,840 6,602,352 $12,456,760 1.°, IN HIGH PLACES. Some Afro- Americans Who Have been Honored by the Republican Party; Appointed, Recommended or Retained by the President. William H. Lewis, Assistant Attorney General, Washington, D. C. J. C. Napier, Eegister of the Treasury, Washington, D. G. Charles W. Anderson, Collector of Internal Eevenue, New York, N. Y. Henry Lincoln Johnson, Kecorder of Deeds, Washington, D. C. Ralph W. Tyler, Auditor for the Navy, Washington, D. C. C. F. Adams, Assistant Register of the Treasury, Washington, D. C. Robert H. Terrell, Judge Municipal Court, Washington, D. C. Joseph E. Lee, Collector of Internal Revenue, Jacksonville, Fla. N. W. Alexander, Register of Land Office, Montgomery, Ala. John E. Bush, Receiver of Public Moneys, Little Rock, Ark. Whitefiell McKinlay, Collector of Customs, Washington, D. C. Charles A. Cottrill, Collector of Internal Revenue, Honolulu, Hawaii. T. V. McAllister, Receiver of Public Moneys, Jackson, Miss. S. L. Williams, Special Assistant District Attorney, Chicago, 111. Gen. Robert Smalls, Collector of Customs, Beaufort, S. C. James A. Cobb, Special Assistant District Attorney, Washington, D. C. Isaiah J. McCottrie, Collector of Customs, Georgetown, S. C. John M. Holzendorf, Collector of Customs, St. Mary's, Ga. Mary C. Booze, Postmaster, Mound Bayou, Miss. W. C. Matthews, Special Assistant District Attorney, Boston, Mass. George A. Reed, Postmaster, Beaufort, S. C. W. D. Johnson, Agent in Tick Eradication, Department of Agriculture. J. B. Washington, Postmaster, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. William L. Jones, Postmaster, Boley, Oklahoma. W. T. Vernon, Supervisor of Indian Schools. Jafi.es M. Alexander, Deputy Collector Internal Revenue, Los Angeles, California. P. B. &. Pinchback, Revenue Agent, New York City. Assistant Attorney General. To President Tait must be given the credit for having appointed an Afro- American to the highest appointive office ever held by one of the race. When he named Hon. William H. Lewis of Massachusetts as Assistant Attorney General, Mr. Taf t did an unprecedented thing as this is a near-cabinet position. Mr. Lewis ' com- mission is dated March 27, l9H. He was assigned by Attorney General Wickersham to Indian Depredation Claims. A summary of the report of the Assistant Attorney General Lewis in charge of Indian depredation claims, is as fellows: Total Nnmber of cases filed 10,841. Amount claimed $43,515,867.06 Cases reduced to judgment 9,676. Amount claimed in such cases. $38,764,027.25 Cases reinstated since Nov. 1, 1910 36. Amount claimed in such cases $134,564.44 Judgments for claimants from Nov. 1, 19l0 to Nov. 1, 1911 46. Amount claimed ; $274,120.44 Amount of judgments for claimants. $45,864.00 Judgments for defendants from Nov. 1, 1910 to Nov - h 1911 170. Amount claimed $674,792.84 Number of cases now pending 1,165. Amount Claimed : $4,751,839.81 The above statement shows that since the dav. e of the last annual report, 216 cases have been decided by the court, the total amt" int claimed in such cases being $948,913.28. The claimants recovered judgments in 46 cases, the amount clafmed being $274,120.44 and the amount awarded them bein? $45,864._ In 170 cases the 'judgments were in favor of the defendants, the amount' claimed in such eases being $674,792.84. 14 AFRO-AMERICANS AT THE WHITE HOUSE. Race Fares Well under Administration of President Taft. Place of Custodian Created for Major Arthur Brooks, N. G. D. C. Twenty-seven Colored Employees Receive about $20,000 in Salaries Annually. When Mr. Taft became president, March 4, 1909, there were six colored mes- sengers and laborers employed in the Executive Office. In the reorganization of the office in 1911, two were transferred to positions in the Departmental service. One was afflicted with tuberculosis and the President had him transferred to a good position in the War Department in New Mexico on advice of his physician. Since the President 's inauguration three colored employees have been added: Major Arthur Brooks, Com- manding First Separate Battalion, N. G. D. C, for whom the place of custodian was created, William Pannell and Harry L. Mickey. In the Executive Mansion the following Afro-Americans, in addition to several others who are still on the rolls, were employed at the time the President came into office: Messrs. Duncan, Amos, Brent, Reeder and Pinckny. Mr. Duncan was trans- ferred to the Treasury Department at an increased salary; Mr. Brent was trans- ferred as a clerk to the city post office at an increased salary; Mr. Eeeder was trans- ferred to the State Department. Mr. Pinckny was given a good place in the Executive Office, and Mr. Amos was given a good place in New York. All of these places were filled by the President with colored men. In addition the President appointed the following Afro-American employees at the Executive Mansion: W. W. Brown, J. W. Mays, S. C. Jackson, L. C. Peters and Miss Annie Brooks. When the President came into office there were five colored coachmen and hostlers at the White House stables. On account of changing from carriages to auto- mobiles, chauffeurs and footmen were employed, but places were found in the De- partments for four of these coachmen and hostlers and the other voluntarily accepted a position in New York. There are on the regular pay roll of the Executive Office, six colored employees whose salaries aggregate $5,960 per annum. On the regular pay roll of the Execu- tive Mansion, there are twenty colored employees whose annual salaries aggregate $11,562. One colored employee in the White House garage receives a salary of $780 per annum. A number of colored men and women are employed for duty at functions during the social season and their pay in the aggregate amounts to more than $1,000. The total amount paid to Afro-Americans at the White House is nearly $20,000 per annum. After twenty-five years of faithful service as the commanding officer of a battalion of the National Guard of the District of Columbia, Major Arthur Brooks has re- cently been retired with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. His commission was signed by President Taft. Lieutenant Colonel Brooks is still on duty as custodian at the White House. The Afro-American and His Debt to the Republican Party. If the Afro-American citizen recalls the past he must acknowledge that every privilege he has in this country came to him at the hands of the Bepublican party. The Democrats opposed every proposition looking toward his welfare during the long struggle over the Negro question in the years following the slaveholders' rebellion. The history of the United States tells a conclusive story on these points. Freedom, manhood, education, suffrage, opportunity were given by the party of which Taft and Sherman are the standard bearers. To the Democratic party the race owes: Two hundred and fifty years of slavery, peonage, disfranchisement, jimcrowism, lynching, curtailment of educational facilities, segregation, humiliation and degradation. The Washington Custom House. The present Collector of Customs at Washington, Hon. Whitefield McKinlay, is an Afro-American and was appointed by President Taft, August 5, 1910. He is paid a salary and commissions which aggregated $3,755 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912. The value of imports has increased over $20,000 since Mr. McKinlay became Collector, and last year amounted to $1,132,024.00. 15 AFRO-AMERICANS In the Field cf Diplomacy and in the Consular Service, July i, 1912. Diplomatic: Name. Position and Address. Salary. Henry W. Furniss, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Port au Prince, Haiti $10,000 William D. Crum, Minister Eesident and Consul General at Monrovia, Li- beria 5,000 Richard C. Bundy, Secretary of Legation at Monrovia, Liveria 2,000 Consular: William J. Yerby, Consul at Sierre Leone, West Africa 2,000 James C. Carter, Consul at Tamatave, Madagascar 2,500 Christopher H. Payne, Consul at St. Thomas, West Indies 3,000 George H. Jackson, Consul at Cognac, Prance 2,500 Lemuel W. Livingston, Consul at Cape Haitien, Haiti 2,000 William H. Hunt, Consul at St. Etienne, France 2,500 Herbert E. Wright, Consul at Puerto Cabello, Venezuela 2,000 James W. Johnson, Consul at Corinto, Nicaragua 3,000 Subordinate Consular Positions: Edmond A. Burrill, Vice and Deputy Consul and Clerk at St. Etienne, France 1,000 DeWitt W. Perdue, Vice and Deputy Consul and Clerk at St. Thomas, West Indies 600 John H. Reed, Vice Consul General at Monrovia, Liberia * J. William Woel, Consular Agent, Gonaives, Haiti t 152 St. Charles Villedrouin, Consular Agent, Jeremie, Haiti t 158 Total ' $38,410 *Vice and Deputy Consular Officers as such receive compensation only in the absence of the principal Consular Officer. fConsular Agents, under statute, receive as compensation one-half the official fees collected hv them, not exceeding $1,000 in any one year. They are permitted to engage in business. The above amounts show compensation of agents for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911, THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Has a Larger Number of Afro- American Presidential Appointees Than Any Other Department of the United States Government. The Treasury Department has in the city of Washington, 926 Afro-American employees with an aggregate compensation of $588,801. Outside of Washington the Treasury Department has 1,082 Afro-American Employees with a total compensation of $743,373. This is a total of 2,008 Afro- Americans employed in the Treasury Depart- ment with a total compensation of $1,332,174. These are the figures so far as known, but returns are still coming in and a reasonable estimate of the total number of colored employees would be 2,200, and an aggregate annual compensation of $1,500,000. The Register of the Treasury. One of the most important offices in the Treasury Department, that of th3 Regis- ter of the Treasury, has been continuously filled by colored men under Republican appointment, during more than a quarter of a century, while under Democratic admin- istrations during that time no Negro was considered worthy to occupy that position. The importance of this office is indicated by the fact that the signature of the Regis- ter as well as that of the Treasurer of the United States is attached to all paper currency issued by the Government and the signature of a colored man has thus been one of the two names attached to every piece of paper money issued under Republican administrations since 1881, when Blanche K. Bruce was appointed register of the Treasury; while under Democratic administrations names of white Democrats were substituted when Rosecrans and Tillman, respectively, were appointed to that position, 16 Duties of the Register of the Treasury. The Eegister of the Treasury signs all bonds of the United States, the bonds of the .Oistrict of Columbia, the Philippine Islands, the city of Manila, the city of Cebu, and tt-e Porto Eican gold loan, and keeps records showing the daily outstanding bal- ances ^hereof. He examines, counts, and prepares for destruction the upper halves of all redeemed paper money, except national-bank notes, received from the banks through*, the Office of the Treasurer of the United States for redemption, all paid interest coupons, and all other United States securities redeemed. Erich day the Eegister receives a statement from the Loans and Currency Divisioib, showing all transactions in bonds, whether issued, transferred, or exchanged. Eedeel.aed bonds are received by the Eegister from the Treasurer of the United States and a ter examination and entry are returned to him. This makes the office of the Eegister a complete check on these offices so far as the Government's bonded indebtedness is concerned, and enables the Eegister from his records to know the outstanding bonded indebtedness of the United States at the close of each business day. l A:B interesting part of the Eegister 's Office is the Currency Section, where upper halves of the mutilated paper currency, sent in for redemption are counted before destruction by maceration. The register is represented, by an employee of the office, on each of the special committees in connection with the examination, and destruction of Unitef States redeemed securities, national currency, burned and multilated notes, internal revenue and postage stamps, etc. During the past year, 485,495 redeemed and canceled Seven-Thirty notes amounting to $140,073,050 and 3,101,699 Seven- Thirty Co ipon Treasury notes amounting to $829,841,850, and 56 years' accumula- tion of redeemed detached and canceled coupons of old and matured loans, numbering 103,250,868 and amounting to $1,237,342,994.30 were counted and prepared for destruc- tion by order of the Secretary of the Treasury. This special count required several months to complete, but when it was finished the number and amount of the securities balanced with the figures in the books. There was not one cent difference. Notwith- standing the destruction of this immense number of canceled securities there are still on file 18,731,944 redeemed and canceled certificates amounting to $5,218,341, 725.09. These are so systematically arranged that in case any particular piece is needed for any purpose it may be found in a few minutes. The volume of business transacted by the Eegister 's Office is so great that it would be impracticable to give the details. The total interest-bearing ' debt of the United States is $963,776,770.00. The present Eegister of the Treasury, Hon. J. C. Napier, of Tennessee, is a colored man. He was appointed by President Taft, in 1911. The Afro-Americans on the Eegister 's pay roll for the year ended June 30, 1912, received $16,000 in salaries. Office of the Auditor for the Navy Department. The Office of Auditor for the Navy Department is held by Hon. E. W. Tyler, of Ohio, a colored man. The work of the office is to audit all accounts of the Navy De- partment, and to settle all claims arising in that department. During the fiscal year just closed this office audited accounts amounting to $152,666,269.29. This office has the largest clerical force of any bureau presided over by a colored man, there being 100 employees, eighteen are colored, eleven of these eighteen colored employees having been appointed during Mr. Tyler's administration, there being but seven in the office when he took charge. The total salaries paid per annum to all employees in this office, amount to $137,590. Of this amount the colored employees in the office receive $25,680 per annum. This office has a larger number of high grade colored clerks than any other office administered by any colored or white official. Of the eight colored clerks in the entire government service at Washington, who are paid the maximum clerk's salary, $1,800, four of them are in the Office of the Auditor for the Navy Department. Although the volume of business transacted by this office is far in excess of what it was at the time the present auditor took charge, by adopting modern methods he has been able to reduce the number of clerks from 115 to 100. At the time the present auditor took charge, the work of the office was three years behind. To-day it is right abreast with the work, the past year having been unpre- cedented for the record made in gaining on the work. 17 TREASURY NOTES. Interesting and Instructive Data About the Treasury Department and / ffo- Americans in Its Service. " There are 84 Afro-Americans in the various branches of the Treasury Service at New Orleans, La., and their annual salaries amount to $68,980. Mr. Justin M. Holland, Deputy Collector of Customs at New Orleans, La., i eceives a salary of $3,000 per annum. He is a colored man. I The 216 Afro-American employees in the various branches of the Ti jasurf Service at New York City, receive annual salaries aggregating more than $2( '0,000. The 18 Afro-Americans employed under the Treasury Department at Ga veston, Texas, draw $14,000 in salaries annually. Twenty-nine colored employees in the Treasury service at Atlanta, Ja., are paid salaries aggregating $19,116 per annum. Twelve colored employees under the Treasury Department at Key West, Florida, receive $8,293 annually. There are 27 colored men in the Treasury service at Baltimore, Maryland, and their annual salaries aggregate $18,601. Fifty-two Afro-Americans employed under the Treasury Department at Phila- delphia, draw $31,326 per annum in salaries. In the Treasury service at San Francisco, Cal., there are 24 Afro-American em- ployees and their salaries aggregate $19,982 annually. James M. Alexander, Deputy Collector of Internal Eevenue at Los Angeles, Cali- fornia, was appointed by executive order of President Taft in 1909. In the order the President gave as one of the reasons for his action the fact that the Afro-Ameri- cans of California did not have proper representation in the service of the Government. Mr. Alexander is the chief deputy and also acts as cashier of the office. There was some opposition to the appointment of Charles A. Cottrill as Collector of Internal Eevenue at Honolulu, Hawaii. A delegation came from the island to protest against it, but Secretary MacVeagh was firm in his recommendation of Mr. Cottrill as the best qualified man for the place so the appointment was made by the President. In the Bureau of Engraving and Printing there are 551 Afro- American employees receiving from $1.50 to $4.00 per day. Only 70 receive less than $1.75 per day. Mr. E. E. Belcher, Deputy Collector of Customs at Brunswick, Ga., has been in the service many years and has made an excellent record. Learning that ex-Governor Pinchback's fortune had been swept away and that he needed employment to provide for himself and his family in his declining years Presi- dent Taft directed that he be given a place in the Internal Eevenue service at $10 per day and after Governor Pinchback had served long enough to prove his efficiency, the place was put under civil service so that the ex-Governor has been provided a place which is not subject to political changes and is fixed for life. A few years ago, W. W. Hall, an Afro-American was a laborer working for $548 a year in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, but thanks to the Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. Franklin MacVeagh, he has been rapidly promoted and is now a first class stenographer earning a good salary. 18 THE UNITED STATES ARMY. List of Afro-American Officers with Rank and Yearly Pay. Number of Enlisted Men With Aggregate Annual Pay. Officers. Nearly Pay. Major John E. Lynch (retired) $2,700 Captain Charles Young 3,360 1st Lieut. Benjamin O. Davis 2,400 1st Lieut. John E. Green 2,400 Lt.-Col. Allen Allensworth (retired) 3,375 Major Wm. T. Anderson (retired) 2,700 Captain George W. Prioleau 3,120 1st Lieut. W. W. E. Gladden 2,200 1st Lieut. Oscar J. W. Scott 2,200 1st Lieut. Louis A. Carter 2,000 M. M. McCary, Army Paymaster 's clerk 2,000 Total yearly pay of officers $28,455 Enlisted men in the 9th and 10th Cavalry, and 24th and 25th Infantry, 4,416, and their yearly pay in the aggregate amounts to 1,133,766 Total for officers and men - $1,162,221 CHIEF MUSICIANS. The Chief Musicians in the four Afro- American regiments in the United States Army are colored men. The names, enlistment periods, and monthly rates of pay are as follows, their aggregate annual pay being included in the figures given above for enlisted men: Band. Name of Chief Musician. Enlistment. Bate of Pay. 9th Cavalry Wade H. Hammond 1st Enlistment $75.00 per Mo. Period. 10th Cavalry Alfred J. Thomas 3rd Enlistment 83.00 per Mo. Period. 24th Infantry Edward Polk 8th Enlistment 99.00 per Mo. Period. 25th Infantry Leslie King '. . .5th Enlistment 91.00 per Mo. Period. PHILIPPINE CONSTABULARY BAND. Captain Walter H. Loving, Conductor of the Philippine Constabulary Band, re- ceives annual pay amounting to $2,525.00 in American gold, and quarters. He is an Afro-American. His original enlistment was dated January 13, 1902. The Musi- cians in the band are Filipinos. DOUGLASS ON LINCOLN. An Appreciation of the Great Emancipator and First Republican President By the Greatest Afro-American. "How sad and strange the fate of this great and good man, the saviour of his country, the embodiment of human charity whose heart though strong, was as tender as the heart of childhood; who always tempered justice with mercy; who sought to supplant the sword with the counsel of reason, to suppress passion by kindness and moderation; who had a sigh for every human grief and a tear for every human woe; should at last perish by the hand of a desperate assassin, against whom no thought of malice had ever entered his heart. ' ' — Frederick Douglass. 19 HON. WILLIAM H. LEWIS Assistant Attorney General of the United States. HON. HENRY W. FURNISS Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Haiti. HON. J. C. NAPIER Register of the Treasury. HON. HENRY L. JOHNSON Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia. ^H THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. Taft Administration Has Done Much Toward Stamping Out Peonage by Vigorous Enforcement of the Statutes Against this Form of Involuntary Servitude. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States. — Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Peonage, the new system of slavery in the Democratic South, may be defined as causing compulsory service to be rendered by one man to another, on the pretext of having him work out the amount of a debt, real or claimed ; also the carrying or enticing of any person from one place to another in order that he may be held in in- voluntary servitude. The Taft Administration through the Department of Justice, has done much toward obliterating this foul practice so common in the South. Attorney General Wickersham in his annual report recommends that the United States statutes upon the subject of peonage and slavery, be amended so as to render them more effective. The following is f rom the Annual Eeport of the Attorney General : Enforcement of Peonage Statutes. The vigorous enforcement of the statutes against peonage conducted by the de- partment in the last few years, it is believed, has done much toward stamping out that form of involuntary servitude in many districts, but in some of the Southern States this practice appears to be still quite extensively carried on. Prosecutions under the peonage statutes have been instituted in nearly all the Southern States, and in a few States not in the South. Convictions, owing to local prejudice, are difficult to secure, but they have been obtained in a number of States. Even where convic- tions have not been secured, it is thought that the acts of cruelty and oppression which frequently mark these peonage cases, disclosed in the course of their trial, have had the effect of turning the sentiment of the people against the methods which give rise to prosecutions for involuntary servitude. The chief support of peonage lies in the peculiar system of laws prevailing in some of the Southern States intended to compel personal service on the part of laborers. The usual practice, under these State laws, seems to be for the person who desires the services of a laborer to swear out a warrant against him for some alleged offense, have him taken before a justice of the peace, and bound over to the next term of court, the complainant becoming surety rr procuring bail for him, and then taking him to his farm or plantation and compelling him to labor through the fear or threat of imprisonment. Another expedient, expressly authorized by the laws of some States, is for the interested party to confess judgment on behalf of a laborer who has been accused of some offense, pay the same, and then have the laborer bound under a contract made under the supervision of the court to work out the indebtedness so contracted. The constitutionality of such laws is now in process of being tested by the department. At its last tern - , the Supreme Court of the United States, in Bailey v. The State of Alabama (219 U. S., 219), rendered a decision which goes far toward holding un- constitutional a statute designed, under the guise of punishing persons who obtained money under false pretenses, to enforce a condition of involuntary servitude, by de- claring a provision thereof which made a breach of contract prima tacie evidence of an intent to defraud, to be in violation of the thirteenth amendment. It is suggested that the statutes of the United States upon the subject of peonage and slavery should be amended so as to render them more effective for the protection of persons against slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime. The penal provisions on this subject are now embodied in sections 26S, 269, 270, and 271 of the Criminal Code. These statutes should be made as broad as the fifteenth amendment, and should penalize the holding of any person in a condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where the party shall have been duly convicted. As the statutes now stand, they do not appear to cover completely the case of holding a person as a slave, and the only form of invol- untary servitude penalized is that of peonage, or compulsory service in payment of debt. 21 Section 1990 of the Eevised Statutes, which undertakes to abolish peonage, and nullifies any laws, customs, or usages of any State or Territory under which peonage is sought to be established or maintained, should also be amended by making it clearly apply to any form of involuntary servitude covered by the thirteenth amend- ment, and also by providing for the punishment of any person who attempts to en- force, or aids or abets the enforcement of, such a statute, custom, or usage for any such purpose. HOWARD UNIVERSITY. Great Institution of Learning Founded by Gen. O. O. Howard in 1867. Fifty-four Per Cent of the Officers, Professors, Teachers and Enployees are Afro-Americans. Has Enthusiastic Personal and Official Support of President Taft. Howard University was founded by Gen. O. 0. Howard and his associates. Funds were received for buildings from the appropriation by the National Government for the education of the Freedmen. The first annual appropriation was for 1879, and was $10,000. An annual appropriation has been continued to the present. For 1911-12 it was $92,900. In recent years there has been an appropriation of $90,000 for a Science Hall, also one for an addition to the Manual Arts Building" of $23,000. While, special provision was made for the higher education of the Afro- American, no race was excluded, and North American Indians, Chinese, Japanese and Europeans of several nationalities, besides Caucasian-American citizens, have in the past been in the several departments, being especially attracted by the superior advantages in the professional schools. During the last six years the attendance upon the University has increased from 818 to 1,409; the increase in the regular courses of the School of Liberal Arts (including the College of Arts and Sciences and Teachers' College) has been from 102 to 356. Last year there was a student body of 1,409, representing 37 states, with 111 from 11 foreign countries, nearly all however, being identified with the colored race. Howard University Has Approval of President Taft. President Taft has placed his personality and his official position back of the sup- port of the University. He has spoken on its Campus on two important occasions and has given two addresses elsewhere especially in its behalf. He has stated as no other President has, the duty of the Government in the following utterances. The Work and Mission of Howard University. ' ' This institution here is the partial repayment of a debt — only partial — to a race to which the government and the people of the United States are eternally indebted. They brought that race into this country against its will. They planted it here irretrievably. They first put it in bondage, and they kept it in the ignorance that the bondage seemed to make necessary, under the system then in vogue. Then they freed it, and put upon it the responsibilities of citizenship. Now some sort of obligation follows that chain of facts with reference to the people who are respon- ible for what that government did. It is fitting that the government of the United States should assume the obligation of the establishment and maintenance of a first class university for the education of colored men. * * * Everything that I can do as an executive in the way of helping along this University I expect to do. I expect to do it because I believe it is a debt of the people of the United States, and it is money constitutionally applied to that which shall work out in the end the solution of one of the great problems that God has put upon the people of the United States. ' ' — From speech of President Taft at Howard University. Higher Education Essential to Race. Now it is highly essential that all of the men of your race and any other race who are to occupy the learned professions shall be equipped with a complete education and those of us who are responsible for the coming of your race to this country are equally responsible for furnishing the means by which they shall lift themselves. 22 (Hearty applause.) It is essential that we should encourage those who aspire to be the leaders of your race as far as possible and furnish the means for higher education such as are supplied by Howard University, by Fisk University and other institutions established for the higher education of your race. Now these people who are worrying about the waste of money on that account, need not sit up at night on the subject, for I have looked into the amount of money that is invested in these institutions and there is not anywhere enough money to furnish the education that is needed by the colored people of this country. (Applause.) The funds are not sufficient. Howard Uni- versity is under the shadow of the Capitol and properly receives and ought to receive money enough to make it a great educational institution. (Hearty applause.) Of course, it is well to have voluntary contributions where you can get them but where you can not get them they ought to be pieced out with the governmental appropriations. (Applause.) — From speech of President Taft at meeting in interest of Howard University gymnasium, April 9, 1912. There are 85 Afro-Americans regularly employed as Officers, Teachers and in other positions in Howard University with an aggregate annual salary of $59,223.60 This is over 54 per cent of the total number of persons so employed. In all cases the same salaries are paid for similar positions. There is in addition to this a large number of students employed as janitors and in other work. THE PROGRESS IN EDUCATION. The progress of the Afro-American people in education has been remarkable. The decrease in illiteracy as shown by census figures is as follows: 1870—79.9 per cent. 1880 — 70.0 per cent. 1890—57.1 per cent. 1900 — 44.5 per cent. 1910—30.4 per cent. There are 3,422,157 Afro-Americans from 6 to 20 years of age, inclusive, in the United States and 1,619,699 or 47.3 per cent, are attending school. A larger number ought to be in school but they are not able to do so by reason of the inade- quate facilities provided for the race in the Southern Democratic States. In the Northern, Eastern and "Western States, very generally under the domina- tion ot the Kepublican party, Afro-Americans have been accorded the same rights as other citizens and have attended the same schools. In the Democratic* South a separate school system exists and the schools for Afro-American are generally inferior to those for Caucasians and they are not absolutely equal in a single Southern Democratic State. Forced to a great extent by Eepublican opinion of the North the Southern Democrats have done something for the education of the colored race but it is very little when compared with the provisions for education in the Eepublican North where in the public schools, the child of every citizen has an equal share in the school facilities. A concrete example of this is shown in Birmingham, Alabama, where the white school population in 1910 was 19,810 and the value of the white high school building, grounds and equipment was $200,168.64, while the colored school population was 19,726 and the value of the colored high school building, grounds and equipment was $1,050. Another example: The white population of Bedford, Virginia, is 1,400; the colored population 1,100. The cost of the colored school building, including the ground, was $4,500; the school board is now planning a $30,000 school building for the whites. Thousands of similar cases could be cited. Progress is being made, however, in spite of the injustices and hinderances, for which malevolent Democratic influence is responsible. The proof of the progress lies in the fact that the illiteracy of the race has been reduced nearly 50 per cent. (49.5 per cent) in forty years and the credit for this must be given very largely to "Republican sentiment. President Taft has shown himself to be deeply interested in the education of the Afro-American people. He has delivered many public addresses advocating every kind of education for the race. He is one of the trustees of Hampton Institute. He is also a trustee of the Jeannes Fund for the education of the poor colored children of the rural districts of the South, who are denied decent school facilities in many localities by their Democratic neighbors, and since his acceptance of this trust, several 23 meetings of the board of trustees have been held in the White House. Mr. Taft is especially interested in the higher education of the race and in a recent address he publicly stated that he believed that a college education is just as essential to the full development of the race as is industrial education. The Bureau of Education. The Commissioner of Education in his report for the year ending June 30, 1911, gives a special chapter on schools for the colored race. This is an addition to the statistics on colored schools for all grades, which are included in the general educa- tional statistics in the other chapters of his report. The summary of the enrollment of the 150 public high schools for Afro-Americans reporting to the Bureau of Education for 1911, shows that there are 513 teachers for the high school grades, an enrollment of 9,641 secondary or high school students and 2,021 elementary pupils. Table 2 of the report of the Commissioner of Education shows that 238 secondary and higher schools for Negroes (not including the 150 public high schools) had 3,398 teachers, 40,945 elementary pupils, 23,834 secondary students, or students of high school grade, and 5,313 students in collegiate and professional classes. Table 3 of the report shows that 205 of the 238 schools had libraries, aggregating 442,155 volumes, 229 possessed property valued at $17,120,311, and 224 of the schools re- ported total income for the year aggregating $2,579,714. The Morrill Act of 1890, which was an act "to apply a portion of the proceeds of the public lands to the more complete endowment and support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts established under the provisions of an act of Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, ' ' provides ' ' That no money shall be paid out under this act to any State or Territory for the support and maintenance of a college where a distinction of race or color is made in the admission of students, but the establishment and maintenance of such colleges separately for white and colored students shall be held to be a compliance with the provisions of this act if the funds received in such State or Territory be equitably divided as hereinafter set forth: Provided, That in any State in which there has been one college established in pursuance of the act of July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and also in which an educational institution of like char- acter has been established, or may be hereafter established, and is now aided by such State from its own revenue, for the education of colored students in agiiculture and the mechanic arts, however named or styled, or whether or not it has received money heretofore under the act to which this is an amendment, the Legislature of such State may propose and report to the Secretary of the Interior a just and equitable division of the fund to be received under this act tetween one college for white students and one institution for colored students established as aforesaid, which shall be divided into two parts and paid accordingly, and thereupon such institution for colored students shall be entitled to the benefits of this act subject to its pro- visions, as much as it would have been if it had been included under the act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and the fulfillment of the foregoing provisions shall be taken as a compliance with the provision in reference to separate colleges for white and colored students. ,; The Legislature of Tennessee in an act approved July 6, 1911, has provided that the funds received by the State of Tennessee shall be divided between the University of Tennessee, at Knoxville, and the Agricultural and Industrial School for Negroes, at Nashville. This institution for colored students has recently been established by the State and will open for instruction in September, 1912. The division of the funds pro- vided by the acts of Congress of August 30, 1890, and March 4, 1907, is to be based upon the scholastic population of colored children and white children of the State, the funds to be divided in proportion to the number of children of each race. At present the entire Federal appropriation is given to the University of Tennessee. The indus- trial department of Knoxville College is under the supervision of the university, and colored students desiring education in agriculture, domestic science, and the trades and industries are sent to Knoxville College. About 23 per cent of the total amount received from the Federal Government by the university is expended in maintaining the industrial department at Knoxville College. During the past year there has been marked activity in the agricultural and mechanical colleges in reorganization of their work for the preparation of special teachers of agriculture, mechanic arts, and household science. 24 OFFICE OF THE RECORDER OF DEEDS. Hon. Henry Lincoln Johnson, of Georgia, the present Eeeorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, is a colored man and was appointed by President Taft in 1909. During the past fiscal year, 26,137 instruments, exclusive of incorporation papers, were filed for record, which number, being 901 in excess of the number re- corded during the fiscal year 1911, the previous largest year in the history of the office established a new record. Four hundred and twenty-nine incorporation papers were filed for record. The sum of $2,615 was collected from 85 corporations. This was an increase of $595 over the previous year. The total receipts of the Office for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, were $45,988.55, which exceeded by $2,550.75 those collected during the previous fiscal year, when they reached the highest mark in the history of the Office, the year just closed being the largest both in the number of papers filed for record and in amount of its receipts. The fiscal year of 1912 established still another record, the amount of its unexpended revenues deposited in the United States Treasury at its close being $12,851.60, which amount was $3,768.73 in excess of the unexpended balance of the previous year. The total amount paid to salaried employees and copyists during the year was $29,890.37 and of this amount the 23 Afro-American employees received $18,545.52. BROWNSVILLE SOLDIER GIVEN PLACE BY TAFT. Mingo Sanders, Former First Sergeant of Co. B., 25th Infantry, Who was Discharged Without Honor by President Roosevelt Appointed Messenger by the President. By an executive order of President Taft, Mingo Sanders, who was first sergeant of Company B of the Twenty-fifth infantry one of the colored regiments, discharged from the army without honor for alleged participation in the Brownsville riots became a messenger in the classified service on August 3, 1912 and went to work in the Interior Department at $70 per month. When Sanders was discharged he had served twenty-nine years and after another years service he would have been en- titled to retirement at two-thirds pay and allowances. Eepresentative Bodenburg, of Illinois, who has taken great interest in Sanders' welfare, will introduce a bill in the House to reinstate him in the army and permit his retirement at once. Later Mr. Rodenburg will introduce a bill for the reinstatement of all the innocent soldiers discharged for alleged participation in the "shooting up" of Brownsville. THE FREEDMEN'S HOSPITAL. The Freedmen's Hospital was established by the Act of March 3, 1865, as a war necessity for the Freedmen and Refugees who followed the Grand Army to Washington, vaguely expecting the Government would provide for them. It was little more than an asylum for army years until the sundry civil act of March 3, 1903, provision was made for the construction of a new Freedmen's Hospital which has cost $600,000. It is managed by a staff of 91 employees, all of whom are covered by the Civil Service Law. The present organization was effected July 1, 1898, and revised September 18, 1909, and has proved a most satisfactory one. The Surgeon-in-Chief, Dr. William A. Warfield, has made an excellent record not only as a skillful surgeon, but an efficient manager of the business affairs. The visiting Staff is composed of 56 of the leading physicians , and surgeons in the city, 23 of whom are Colored and 33 White. Some idea of the amount of medical and surgical work done in the hospital may be had from a review of the report of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911. It will be seen that 2,900 v atients were treated in the hospital, and 4,838 in the dis- pensary. 248 births occurred and 1,768 operations were performed and 983 emer- gencies. The 91 Afro-American employees receive $24,960 in annual salaries. 25 HON. CHAELES W. AXDEESOX Collector of Internal Eevenue; New York City. HON. WILLIAM D. CEUM Minister Eesident and Consul Gren- eral to Liberia. HOX. WHITEFIELD McKIXLAY Collector of Customs, at Washington, D. C. HOX. EOBEET SMALLS Collector of Customs, Beaufort, S. C. THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Aids Colored Farmers by Conducting Demonstrations in Raising Various Crops. Has 266 Afro-American Employees with Total Annual Compensation of $143,034. The Department of Agriculture has in the City of Washington, one hundred and sixty-four colored employees with an aggregate compensation of $89,816.95. Outside of Washington the Department has one hundred and two colored employees with a total compensation of $53,217.50. This is a total of two hundred and sixty-six colored employees in the Department of Agriculture, with a total compensation of $143,034.45. In connection with the Farmer's Cooperative Demonstration Work in the South the Bureau of Plant Industry of the Department of Agriculture employees a number of colored agents, who are doing very successful and efficient work. There are now fifteen regular agents employed in connection with this work, who are paid salaries ranging from $25 to $100 per month. These agents are carrying on regular farm demonstrations with farmers m the communities where they are employed, conducting demonstrations in the raising of cotton, corn, and other crops, and generally fostering and encouraging better farming and better living on the part of the Afro-American farmers. Closely identified with the work of the Department is that conducted through the aid of funds secured from the General Education Board. Twenty-one agents are employed in this work at salaries ranging from $25 to $100 per month. This work is practically an extension of the Government work in localities where the Government agents are not employed. All the agents paid from the General Education Board fund are appointed as Collaborators of the Department of Agriculture. The following is a list of the names and locations of some of the agents and collaborators : J. Eussell Council, Boley, Okla. ; A. W. Beck, Mound Bayou, Miss. ; M. A. Jones, Indianola, Miss.; T. M. Campbell, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.; J. B. McPherson, Wedo- wee, Ala.; C. D. Menafee, Opelika, Ala.; T. J. Murray, Fort Davis, Ala.; G. W. Patterson, Huntsville, Ala.; Harry Simms, Snow Hill, Ala.; W. A. Tate, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.; C. F. Eobinson, Tallahassee, Fla. ; J. A. Booker, Fort Valley, Ga.; P. D. Johnson, Covington, Ga. ; Ealph Amos, Meto, Ark. ; Clifford Dove, Tuskegee Institute, Ala. There are also a number of other collaborators who are paid nominal salaries in order to give them official connection with the Department Collaborators; J. A. Bates, Orangeburg, S. C. ; J. E. Blanton, Frogmore, S. C; J. H. Goodwin, Weston, S. C; E. D. Jenkins, Denmark, S. C. ; C. W. Jones, Greenville, S. C; H. S. Murphy, Camden, S. C; E. W. Westberry, Sumter, S. C; N. A. Bailey, Greensboro, N. C; C. S. Mitchell, Parmele, N. C. ; Mattie Holmes, Phoebus, Va., J. W. Lancaster, Farmville, Va. ; E. D. .Lemon, Sassafras, Va. ; G. E. Oliver, Crewe, Va.; A. W. Pegram, Carson, Va.; J. B. Pierce, Wellville, Va. ; C. C. H. Thompson, Blackstone, Va.; E. E. F. Washington, Eoxbury, Va. ; J. F. Wilson, Keysville, ^Va.; E. L. Wynii, Wellville, Va. ; W. G. Young, Upper Zion, Va. ; Annie Peters, Boley, Okla. The Agony cf Spirit Hard to Bear. Now, with reference to the race question and race feeling in the South, I have this conviction, that we have made great progress in 40 years. The work to this point has been hard and heart-rending, and, at times, the agony of spirit has been very hard to bear, but as you look back over the last 50 years, as any one looks back over your history during that period the progress that has been made is marked. ************* Now my friends, I want to extend to you my earnest feeling of sympathy in your struggle onward and upward. — President Taft to Afro-American Citizens of New Orleans. The election of Taft and Sherman means continued prosperity for all the people. 27 AFRO-AMERICAN POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. It is Now 9,827,753, an Increase of 11.2 Per Cent Since 1900. There are 893,384 Farmers, an Increase of 19.6 Per Cent 1,619,699 Children Attending School. Per Cent Illiterate 30.4. The table headed ' ' Af ro-Americans in the United States ' ' is based upon the pre- liminary results of the census of 1910, in comparison in general with the figures for 1910. The distribution of Negroes according to black and mulatto is given for 1910, in comparison with similar results derived from the returns of the censuses of 1890 and 1870. It will be seen that the mulatto population has increased from 12 per cent in 1870 to 20.9 per cent in 1910. r xnere are 893,384 colored farmers, an increase of 146,620 or 19.6 per cent since 1900. The total Afro-American population of the United States according to the census of 1910 is 9,827,763. There are 2,458,873 males 21 years or over. The increase in males of voting age has been 19.3 per cent in the decade. The per eent of illiterate has been reduced from 44.5 in 1900 to 30.4 in 1910. FARMS OF COLORED FARMERS. In the Southern States. Of 893,384 Afro-American Farmers in the Country 880,837 are ^ n the South. Total Value of Farms $900,132,334. There has been an enormous increase in the value of the farms (land and build- ings), owned by the 880,837 Afro- American farmers in the Southern States. In 1900 the value was $380,280,968. According to the Census of 1910 it had increased to $900,132,334, or 136.7 per cent! (The total includes the farms of 9,219 Indians, 24 Chinese, and 61 Japanese in addition to the farms of 880,837 Afro-Americans). Total number of farms, Farms of owners Farms of managers Farms of tenants Total farm acreage Farms of owners Farms of managers Farms of tenants , Total value of farms . . (land and buildings) Farms or owners. ........ Farms of managers Farms of tenants 1910 890,141 218,467 1,200 670,474 42,609,117 15,691,536 349,779 26,567,802 $900,132,334 272,992,238 10,371,949 616,768,147 1900 740,670 186,676 1,593 552,401 38,612,046 13,358,684 428,518 24,824,844 $380,280,968 106,619,328 5,544,310 268,117,330' Increase 1900 to 1910. 149,471 31,791 -393 118,073 3,997,071 2,332,852 -78,739 1,742,958 5519,851,366 166,372,910 4,827,639 348,650,817 O U 20.2 17.0 -24.7 21.4 10.4 17.5 -18.4 7.0 136.7 156.0 87.1 130.0 (A minus sign (-) denotes decrease.) Afrc-Americans in the Larger Cities. There are eight of the larger cities in each of which there are more than 25,000 Afro-Americans ana in three of them they constitute a considerable proportion of the total population. Of the cities named, Washington, with 94,446 Afro-Americans has the largest proportion, 28.5 per cent; New Orleans, with 89,262 Afro-Americans, the second largest, 26.3 per cent; and Baltimore, with 84,749 Afro-Americans, the third largest proportion, 15.2 per cent. New York has 91,709 Afro-Americans, almost as many as in "Washington and more than in New Orleans, but of its total population the Afro-Americans constitute only 1.9 per cent. Philadelphia has 84,459 Afro- Americans, or 5.5 of its total population; Chicago 44,103 Afro- Americans, or 2 per cent; St. Louis 43,960 Afro-Americans, or 6.4 per cent; and Pittsburgh 25,623 Afro- Americans, or 4.8 per cent. In Detroit there are 5,741 Afro-American s; Buffalo, 1,773; San Francisco, 1,642; Milwaukee, 980; Cincinnati, 19,639; Newark, 9,475; St. Louis, 43,960; Boston, 13,564; Cleveland, 8,448; Los Angeles, 7,599; Minneapolis, 2,928; Jersey City, 5,960. 28 AFRO-AMERICANS IN THE UNITED STATES. Afro- Americans Total number Males 21 years of age or over. Afro-American Farmers: Total number Afro-Americans 10 years of age or over: Total number Number illiterate Per cent illiterate Afro-Americans 6 to 20 years of age, inclusive : Total number Number attending school. . . . Per cent attending school. . Afro-Americans 6 to 9 years of age, inclusive : . Total number Number attending school. . . . Per cent attending school. . Afro- Americans 1(0 to 14 years of age, inclusive Total number Number attending school. . . . Per cent attending school .... Afro- Americans 15 to 20 years of age, inclusive: Total number , Number attending school. . . . Per cent attending school. . . Total Number 1910 9,827,763 2,458,873 893,384 7,318,502 2,228,087 30.4 3,422,157 1,619,699 47.3 990,850 488,954 49.3 1,155,266 791,995 68.6 1,276,041 338,750 26.5 1900 8,833,994 2,060,302 746,764 6,415,581 2,853,194 44.5 1,091,990 587,560 53.8 1,204,439 211,172 17.5 Increase, 1900-1910 Number 993,769 398,571 146,620 902,921 625,107 63,276 204,435 71,602 127,578 Per cent 11.2 19.3 19.6 14.1 28.1 5.8 34.8 5.9 60.4 A minus sign (-) denotes decrease. Afro- Americans : Total number . . Black Mulatto Per cent mulatto 1910 9,827,763 7,777,077 2,050,686 20.9 1890 *7,488,676 6,337,980 1,132,060 15.2 1870 4,880,009 4,295,960 584,049 12.0 **Includes 18,636 Negroes in Indian Territory not distinguished as black or mulatto. The Post Office Department. There are 3,957 Afro- Americans serving the government under the Post Office Department and their annual salaries aggregate $3,099,907. Among these are in- cluded postmasters, assistant postmasters, clerks, letter carriers, rural mail carriers and railway mail clerks. There are 280 Afro-American postmasters. Among the presidential offices are: Mary A. Booze, Mound Bayou, Miss.; George W. Eeed, Beaufort, S. C. ; William L. Jones, Boley, Okla. ; J. B. Washington, Tuskegee In- stitute, Ala. The Patent Office. One of the most expert examiners in the Patent Office is an Afro-American, Henry E. Baker of Mississippi, who draws a salary of $2,100 per annum. Mr. Baker has been an examiner for 24 years. He has recently made a research of the office and has been able to trace more than 1,000 patents granted to Afro-Americans. 29 MALES OF VOTING AGE FOR STATES AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. < The potential voting strength of each state and city is expressed by the number of its males 21 years of age and over, excluding the foreign born who have not become naturalized, but by this is not meant the actual number of voters. It repre- sents, rather the number of males who from the standpoint of age alone are eligible to vote, aside from any qualifications based upon educations, length of residence, or considerations of a like nature imposed by the national or state government. There are in all 229 cities which had in 1910 more than 25,000 inhabitants, with an aggregate population of 28,543,816. These cities together contained in ' 1910, a total of 9,004,422 males of voting age, or 31.5 per cent of their combined popu- lation. For continental United States as a whole, males of voting age numbered 26,999,151 and constituted 29.4 per cent of the entire population (91,972,266) in 1910. The total number of Afro-American males of voting age in the United States in 1910, was 2,459,327 or 9.1 per cent. Many of these voters in the Southern Demo- cratic States are practically disfranchised and debarred from voting. In the following table the number of Afro-Americans is given in each state and also for each city having a population exceeding 25,000, in which there are 500 or more Afro- American males of voting age. The figures are from Census of 1910, and of course the actual number of Afro-Americans of voting age is greater now than it was two years ago when the census was taken. MALES OF VOTING AGE FOR STATES AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. States and Cities. ALABAMA Birmingham Mobile Montgomery ARKANSAS Little Bock CALIFOENIA Los Angeles Oakland San Francisco ........ COLOBADO Denver Pueblo CONNECTICUT Hartford New Haven DELAWABE Wilmington DIS. of COL. and Washing FLOBIDA Jacksonville Tampa GEOBGIA Atlanta Augusta Macon Savannah ILLINOIS Chicago Danville Peoria East St. Louis Quincy Springfield ton, coextensive Total Males 21 and over Afro- Americans 513,111 213,923 40,699 16,441 15,014 6,578 10,789 4,988 395,824 111,365 14,801 1 4,592 920,397 8,143 114,889 ! 2,571 53,967 1,238 175,951 831 271,648 4,283 71,990 1,999 16,811 581 347,692 4,765 31,121 501 40,510 1,191 61,887 9,050 27,519 2,981 103,761 27,621 214,195 89,659 19,392 9,652 11,691 2,926 620,616 266,814 44,510 13,865 11,949 5,067 11,647 4,988 19,557 9,962 1,743,182 39,983 700,590 17,845 8,514 526 23,054 644 21,005 2,286 11,388 555 16,090 | 1,021 30 MALES OF VOTING AGE FOR STATES AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. (Continued.) States and Cities. INDIANA Evansville Indianapolis Terre Haute IOWA Des Moines KANSAS Kansas City Topeka Wichita KENTUCKY Covington Lexington Louisville LOUISIANA New Orleans Shreveport MAINE : MARYLAND Baltimore MASSACHUSETTS . Boston Cambridge New Bedford .... MICHIGAN Detroit MINNESOTA Minneapolis Saint Paul MISSOURI Kansas St. Joseph St. Louis Springfield MONTANA NEBRASKA Omaha NEW HAMPSHIRE NEW JERSEY Atlantic City Camden Jersey City Newark Orange Trenton NEW YORK Buffalo New York Manhattan bouough Bronx borough Queens borough Brooklyn borough . . Yonkers NORTH CAROLINA Charlotte Wilmington Total Males 21 and over Afro-Americans 822,434 20,651 21,443 76,743 2,242 7,556 18,609 906 663,672 5,528 27,359 1,043 508,529 17,931 26,562 3,088 13,977 1,364 17,788 8V5 603.454 75,694 15,585 961 11,081 3.37:1 67,676 13,687 414,919 '• 74,211 96,997 25,269 8,635 •J.704 235,727 476 367,908 63,963 163,554 26,214 1,021,669 12,591 208,321 5,070 30,262 1,384 28,263 934 870,876 6,266 150,017 2.224 642,669 3,300 105,305 1,227 72,073 1,573 973,062 52,921 87,457 9,101 26,051 1,598 221,913 16,381 10,516 583 155,017 851 353,626 3,225 43,216 1,885 136,668 200 774,202 28,601 15,626 3,756 ' 28,826 1,945 80,866 2,104 103,234 3,015 8,493 720 31,203 1,124 2,836,773 45,877 128,133 740 1,433,749 30,855 727,555 21,279 126,935 1,269 82,373 959 470.386 7,011 23,533 501 506,134 146,752 9,025 2,801 7,129 3,066 31 MALES OF VOTING AGE FOR STATES AND PRINCIPAL CITIES. (Continued.) 1 States and Cities. OHIO Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Dayton Youngstown Springfield Toledo OKLAHOMA Muskogee Oklahoma City . . . OEEGON Portland PENNSYLVANIA . Chester Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh EHODE ISLAND . . Providence SOUTH CAEOLINA Charleston Columbia TENNESSEE ...... Chattanooga ...... Knoxville Memphis Nashville TEXAS . Austin Dallas Fort Worth Galveston Houston San Antonio Waco UTAH VIRGINIA Lvnchburg Norfolk Portsmouth Eichmond Eoanoke WASHINGTON Seattle WEST VIEGINIA . Huntington Wheeling WISCONSIN rotal Males 21 and over Afro- Americans 1,484,265 39.188 113,919 7,387 177,386 3,29fc 60,892 5,028 38,236 1,781 28,157 785 15,361 1,735 52,748 719 447,266 36,841 8,808 2,461 24,736 2,392 257,188 792 88,908 525 2.309,026 64,272 • 12,336 1,615 20,171 1,550 468,813 28,120 166,424 ■9,362 163,834 3,067 68,983 1,765 335,046 169.155 16,J07 7,881 7,605 3,076 552,668 119,142 14,299 5,700 10,591 2,297 44.309 17,238 30,774 9,713 1,003,357 166,398 8,612 1,929 29,864 5,830 25,193 4,513 12,753 2,654 25,935 7,240 27,979 2,917 7,375 1,636 104,115 568 . 523,532 159,593 7,848 2.232 20,907 7,864 10,623 3,394 37,204 13.279 10,144 2,068 441,294 3,120 101,685 1,204 338,349 22,757 9,349 752 12,822 461 638,743 1,082 Senator Ben Tillman in an open letter dated August 31, resents the oft- repeated assertion that in South Carolina, Bleaseism is Tillmanism. Says the Senator : ' ' Tillmanism means genuine democracy, the rule of the people— lof all the white people — rich and poor alike, with special privileges and favors to none, with equality of opportunity and equality of burden to all. Tillmanism is noble, high and elevating. Bleaseism is selfish, low, dirty and revengeful. 32 o o CO « fa < fa Q fa O o o c CO CM t-4 o <u tog 'd.t! CO ^ 8 "2 ** o •So o 43 CO d o o a CO 3 aT SR O rH 0* t- _ «H O " rt rrH ,r5 5 S O ° © « ■^ e8 a cjd CD ' rH fl.-S * rfjj *? 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Afro-American Race Well Represented in the World's Greatest Printing Establishment. 634 Colored Employees Receive $434,856 in Annual Salaries. The Government Printing Office is the largest printing establishment in the world. The cost of the land on which its buildings are located was $345,000; the cost of its buildings was $2,824,000; and the cost of the machinery was $2,306,255. The value of the material and illustrations consumed during the fiscal year 1911 was $2,050,296. The total charges for the printing and binding produced by the Govern- ment Printing Office during the fiscal year 1911, were $6,307,762. The average number of employees during the fiscal year 1911 was 3,990. The aggregate annual salaries and wages of officials and employees during the fiscal year 1911 were $4,302,283. Statement of Afro-Americans Employed in the Government Printing Office on July 1, 1912, With Designations, Etc. Classified Service. Assistant doorkeeper 1 Caster helpers 24 Clerks 3 Compositors 11 Counter in charge 1 Counters 3 Electrotype molder-apprentice • 1 Elevator conductors 24 Firemen 2 Folders 11 Helpers 30 Messengers 6 Monotpye keyboard operators :\ Officeman 1 Oilers 4 Pressf eeders 9 Pressman 1 Skilled laborers (male) 208 Skilled laborers (female) 15 W atckman 1 Total 359 Unclassified Service. Charwomen 6 Chauffeurs 5 Drivers ■ 5 Laborers 9 Stablemen 3 • Unskilled laborers 247 Total 275 SUMMARY. Classified employees 359 Unclassified employees 275 Total 634 The annual salaries paid above employees $434,856. There are 67 regular letter carriers in the New Orleans, La., Post Office. Their salaries aggregate $70,200 a year. 34 THE COMMISSION TO LIBERIA. In 1909, President Taft Appointed a Commission to Go to Liberia for the Purpose of Investigating Conditions There and Aiding the Negro Republic. Emmett J. Scott, an Afro-American, was one of the Commissioners. Great Good Accomplished by the Visit. On April 24, 1909, the Commission to Liberia, appointed by President Taft, to visit Liberia and investigate conditions in the little Eepublic, sailed for Monro- via on the scout cruisers Chester and Birmingham. On the Chester were the Com- missioners. Mr. Eoland P. Falkner, chairman of the Commission, Messrs. Emmett J. Scott, George Sale, members; and Mr. George A. Finch, Secretary; while the Birmingham carried Major Percy M. Ashburn, United States Army, Medical Attache to the Commission, and Mr. Frank A. Flower, naturalist and scientific attache. In 1908 a Special Commission from the Republic of Liberia visited the United States and represented to our Government that Liberia was in need of assistance in maintaining her independence and integrity as a Nation. They asked that the United States guarantee their territorial and political integrity, which, of course, as Secretary Eoot informed them, was impracticable on our part. The United States was then asked to loan to Liberia suitable and competent officers to aid them in the conduct of the administration of their country, and to confer with the representatives of other Governments having interests on the West Coast of Africa, and whose territory bordered on Liberia. Congress authorized the appointment of a commission and appropriated $20,000 for the payment of the expenses thereof. Secretary Eoot suggested that a suitable vessel of the United States Navy be designated to trans- port the Commission to and from Liberia, but, as the Commission appointed by President Taft, was larger in numbers than the one originally recommended, it was decided that the scout cruisers Chester and Birmingham were to have the honor of carrying the distinguished representatives of our country. The Chester bearing the Commission, arrived at Monrovia, May 8th, while the Birmingham with the Medical and Military Attaches, did not drop anchor until May 13th. The Commissioners met with a cordial and enthusiastic reception from the Liberians. During the month of May the Commissioners were busy with their duties, visiting various parts of th . country and hearing testimony and evidence brought before them for their consideration. On May 29th, the Commissioners having completed their labors at Monrovia, separated and boarded the vessels once more. The Chester, with Mr. Falkner, Captain Cloman and Major Ashburn, sailed for Freetown, Sierra Leone, from which place these members of the Commission went to inspect the northern boundary line of Liberia, ana the Birmingham with the remaining members, sailed for Grand Bassa, Liberia. The vessel only remained there for twenty-four hours and then proceded to Cape Palmas and the Eiver Cavalla which is the southern boundary of Liberia. The Commissioners ascended the Eiver Cavalla for some dis- tance and examined the boundary line of Liberia and French Guinea, and on June 4th, their labors having been completed, they boarded the Birmingham and returned to Liberia. Here the American Minister, Dr. Lyon, who had accompanied the Com- missioners on their tour of the southern Liberian counties, disembarked, and the Birmingham said good bye to Monrovia. The cruiser proceeded to Freetown June 8th, and sailed via the Canary Islands and the Azores where short stops were made, and reached Newport, E. I., July 2nd. As one of the results of the visit of the Liberian Commission, Eeed Paige Clark was appointed General Eeceiver of Liberian Customs by the State Department, at the suggestion of President Taft. Mr. Clark was in London in May and arranged the details ot a loan agreement which will supply Liberia with sufficient funds to place her finances on a sound basis. Captain Charles Young, 9th Cavalry, was detailed by direction of the Secretary of War, in December, 1911, to obtain military information from abroad under pro- visions of an act of Congress approved Feb. 27, 1893, and was ordered to Monrovia. Liberia, to report to the American Minister at that capital for such service. Captain Young is the only Afro-American graduate of West Point in the United States Army. All of the letter carriers at the Clarksville, Tennessee, Post Office are Afro- Americans. 35 LIEUT. COL. A. ALLENSWOKTH United States Army (Retired) MAJOR JOHN R. LYNCH United States Army (Retired) HOX. HERBERT R. WRIGHT U. S. Consul, Puerto Cabello, Vene- zuela. HOX. ROBERT H. TERRELL Judge Municipal Court of the Dis- trict of Columbia. ELECTION LAWS OF DEMOCRATIC SOUTHERN STATES. The following are sections of some of the election laws of the South (certified to by the Secretaries of State, in each case,) many of them enacted for the avowed purpose of depriving Afro-American citizens of the right to vote. It wi]l be seen that the Louisiana and North Carolina laws are especially framed for the purpose of making the educational test apply only to the Afro-Americans, and all persons who were voters prior to January 1, 1867, and their lineal descendants are exempt from the provisions of the law, which disqualifies persons because of illiteracy. The laws are skillfully worded and may appear fair, but in practice the registrars have practically unlimited power and in many cases prevent qualified colored voters from exercising the right of franchise. In this connection it is a remarkable fact that no body of Eepublican legisla- tors has ever enacted a single law intended to disfranchise any citizen on account of his race or color. Democratic Governor Donaghey of Arkansas, celebrated Independence Day this year, by issuing a proclamation advocating the passage of a il grand-father clause' ' amendment to the Constitution of that State. In this remarkable statemert Gov. Donaghey acknowledges that 100,000 colored men in Arkansas have the legal right to vote but in many instances have been prevented from exercising their rights by the process of intimidation. ' ' Gov. Donaghey 's statement follows the excerpts from the election laws of the South. Alabama. 1st Those who can read and write any article of the Constitution of the United States in the English language, and who are physically unable to work; and those who can read and write any article of the Constitution of the United States in the English language and who have worked and have been regularly engaged in some lawful employment, business or occupation, trade or calling for the greater part of the twelve months next preceding the time they oner to register, and those who are unable to read and write, if such inability is due solely to physical disability; or, 2na. The owner in good faith in his own right, or the husband of a woman who is the owner in good faith in her own right, of forty acres of land situate in this State, upon which they reside; or the owner in good faith in his own right or the husband of any woman who is the owner in good faith in her own right of any real estate situate in the State assessed for taxation at the value of three hundred dollars or more, or the owner in good faith in his own right or the husband of any woman who is the owner in good faith of her own right of personal property in this State assessed at taxation at three hundred dollars or more; provided that the taxes due upon such real estate or personal property for the year next preceding the year for which he offers to register shall have been paid unless the assessment shall have been legally contested and is undetermined. Georgia. Section 1. Elections by the people shall be by ballot, and only those persons shall be allowed to vote who have first been registered in accordance with the requirements of law. "Par. 2. Every male citizen of the State who is a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upwards, not laboring under any of the disabilities named in this article, and possessing the qualifications provided by it, shall be an elector and entitled to register and vote at any election by the people : provided, that no soldier, sailor, or marine in the military or naval service of the United States shall acquire the rights of an elector by reason of being stationed on duty in this State. "Par. 3. To entitle a person to register and vote at any election by the people he shall have resided in the State one year next preceding the election, and in the county in which he offers to vote six months next preceding the election, and shall have paid all taxes which may have been required of him since the adoption of the Constitution of Georgia of 1877, that he may have had an opportunity of paying agreeably to law. Such payment must have been made at least 'k months prior to the election at which he offers to vote, except when such elections are held ithin six months from the expiration of the time fixed by law for the payment of such taxes. "Par. 4. Everv male citizen of this State shall be entitled to register as an elector and to vote at all elections of said State who is not disqualified under the provisions of section 2 of article 2 of this Constitution, and who possesses the qualifications prescribed in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this section or who will possess them at the date of the election occuring next after his registration, and who in addition thereto, comes within either of the classes provided for in the five following subdivisions of this paragraph. "1. All persons who have honorably served in the land or naval forces of vho United States in the Revolutionary war, or the war of 1812, or in the war with Mexico, or in any war ..ith the Indians or in the war between the States, or in the war with Spain, or who honorably served in the land or naval forces of the Confederate States, of the State of Georgia in the war between the States; or, "2. All persons lawfully descended from those embraced in the sub-division next above, or, "3. All persons who are of good character, and understand the duties and obligations of citizenship under a republican form of government, or, "4. M\ persons who can correcth- rep-"! in the Ene-lish language any ps-aeraph of the Constitution of the United States or of this State, and correctly write the same in the English 37 language when lean to him by any one of the registrars, and all persons who, solely because of physical disability, are unable to comply with the above requirements, but who can understand and give reasonaole interpretation of any paragraph of the Constitution of the United States or of this State, that may be read to them by one of the registrars, or, "5. Any person who is the owner in good faith in his own right of at least forty acres of land situated in this State, upon which he resides, or is the owner in good faith in his owu right, of property situated in this State and assessed for taxation at the value of five hundred dollars." •'Par. 5. The right to register under sub-divisions 1 and 2 of paragraph 4 shall continue only until January 1, 1915. But the registrars shall prepare a roster of all persons who register under sub-divisions 1 and 2 of paragraph 4, and shall return the same to the Clerk's office of the Superior Court of their counties and the Clerks of the Superior Court shall send copies of the same to the Secretary of State, and it shall be the duty of these officers to record and permanently preserve these rosters. Any person who has been once registered under either of the sub-divisions 1 or 2 of paragraph 4 shall thereafter be permitted to vote, provided, he meets the requirements of paragraphs 2 and 3 of this section. "Par. 6. Any person to whom the right of registration is denied by the registrars on the ground that he lacks the qualifications set forth in the five sub-divisions of paragraph 4, shall have the right to take an appeal, and any citizens may enter an appeal from the decision of the registrars allowing any person to register under said sub-divisions. All appeals must be filed in writing with the registrars within ten days from the date of the decision complained of and shall be returned by the registrars to the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court to be tried as other appeals. "Par. 7. Pending an appeal and until the final decision of the case, the judgment of the registrars shall remain in full force. "Par. 8. No person shall be allowed to participate in a primary of any political party or a convention of any political party in the State who is not a qualified voter. Louisiana. "Section 3. He (the voter) shall be able to read and write, and shall demonstrate his ability to do so when he applies for registration, by making, under oath administered by the registration officer or his deputy, written application therefor, in the English Language or his mother tongue, which application shall contain the essential facts necessary to show that he is entitled to register and vote, and shall be entirely written, dated and signed by him, in the presence of the registration officer or his deputy, without assistance or suggestion from any person or memorandum whatever, except the form of application hereinafter set forth. "Section 5. No male person who was on January 1st 1867, or at any date prior thereto, entitled to vote under the Constitution or statutes of any State of the United States, wherein he then resided, and no son or grandson of any such person not less than twenty-one years of age at the date of the adoption of this Constitution, and no male person of foreign birth, who was naturalized prior to the first day of January, 1885, shall be denied the right to register and vote in this State by reason of his failure to possess the educational or property qualifications prescribed by this Constitution; provided, he shall have resided in this State for five years next preceding the date at which he shall apply for registration, and shall have registered in accordance with the terms of this article prior to September 1st, 1898, and no person shall be entitled to register under this section ofter that date." Mississippi. "Section 244. On and after the first day of January, 1892, every elector shall, in addition to the foregoing qualifications, be able to read any section of the Constitution of this State; or he shall be able to understand the same when read to him, or to give a reasonable interpretation thereof." North Carolina. "Art. Vl-Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall be able lo lead and write any section of the Constitution in the English Language, and shall show to the satisfaction of the registrar his ability to read and write any such section when he applies for registration, and before he is registered: provided, however, that no male person who was. on January first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, or any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws of any State in the United States where he then resided, and no lineal descendant of such person, shall be denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifiications aforesaid: Provided, that it shall be made to appear to the registrar that he or his ancestor was entitled to vote prior to January first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, in any state in the United States, as prescribed by article six, section four, of the constitution, and such person, if otherwise qualified, shall be registered, and no registrar shall have the right to inquire whether such person can read or write." South Carolina. "Section 174. Every male citizen of this State and of the United States, twenty-one years of age and upwards, not laboring under disabilities named in the Constitution of 1895 of this State, and who shall have been a resident of the State for two years, in the county one year, in the polling precinct in which the elector offers to vote four months before any election, and shall have paid six months before any election any poll tax then due and payable, and who can read 38 and write any section of the said Constitution submitted to him „_ __<; registration officers, or can show that he owns and has paid all taxes collectible due the ~_„vious year on property in the State assessed at $300 or more and who shall apply for registx^non shall be registered. Virginia. ''Sec. 20. After the first day of January, nineteen bundled »nd four, every male citizen of the United States, having the qualifications of age and residence required in section Eighteen, sball be entitled to register, provided: "First. That he has personally paid to the proper officer all State poll taxes assessed or assessable against him, under this or the former Constitution, for the three years next preceding that in which he offers to register; or, if he come of age at such time that no poll tax shall have been assessable against him for the year preceding the year in which he offers to register, has paid one dollar and fifty cents, in satisfaction of the first year's poll tax assessable against him; or, "Second. That, unless physically unable, he makes application to register in his own hand writing, without aid, suggestion, or memorandum, in the presence of the registration officers, stating therein his name, age, date and place of birth, residence aud occupation at the time and for the two years next preceding, and whether he has previously voted, and, if so, the State, County, and precinct in which he voted last, and, "Third. That he answer on "oath any and all questions affecting his qualifications as an elector, submitted to him by the officers of registration, which questions, and his answers thereto, shall be reduced to writing, certified by the said officers, and preserved as a part of their official records. "Sec. 21. Any person registered under either of the last two sections, shall have the right to vote for members of the General Assembly and all officers elective by the people, subject to the following conditions: "That he, unless exempted by section Twenty-one, shall, as a prerequisite to the right to vote after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and four, personally pay, at least six months prior to the election, all State poll taxes assessed or assable against him, under this Constitution, during the three years next preceding that. in which he offers to vote; provided that, if he register after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and four, he shall, unless physically unable, prepare and deposit his ballot without aid, on such printed form as the law may prescribe; but any voter registerest prior to that date may be aided in preparation of his ballot by such officer of election as he himself may designate. "Sec. 22. No person who, during the late war between the States, served in the army or navy of the United States, or the Confederate States, or any State of the United States, or of the Confederate States, shall at any time be required to pay a poll tax as a prerequisite to the right to register or vote. The collection of ■ the State poll tax assessed against any one shall not be enforced by legal process until the same has become three year's past due. Democratic Governor of Arkansas Favors Disfranchisement. The following remarkable statement favoring the disfranchisement of the colored citizens of Arkansas, was issued by Governor Donaghey of that state on July 4, 1912 : "I am in favor of the passage of the 'grandfather clause' amendment to the constitution. From every viewpoint it is better to eliminate the negro from politics. In the South racial conditions will not permit of his engaging in politics. Several States in the South have the 'grandfather clause.' It is better for the negro because when he does not engage in politics he will cease to antagonize the white man, can look better after his own affairs, and in every other way obtain a better recognition. "Then, so long as we do not permit the negro to vote anyway, why not do it legally, instead of by process of intimidation? It is true that there are a few negroes who ought to be permitted to vote, but as a race it would unquestionably be bad policy to permit their voting by the wholesale. "Statistics show there are in the neighborhood of a hundred thousand negroes of voting age in Arkansas. If one of them is entitled to vote, all are. This number would be sufficient to carry any election in the State. In Jefferson County alone there are about six thousand negroes of voting age, and three thousand white voters. The same ratio exists in many other counties of the State. "By all means let us pass this amendment to the constitution, and let us have absolutely fair elections between white men. Let every white man's vote be counted oust as he votes it. As the matter elands now, the State Board of Election Commissioners is worried to death all the time just prior to elections by committees and factions from the bluik districts of the State wanting the appointment of certain election commissioners, the excuse being that the Democratic ticket is imperiled because of the excessive number of negroes in those districts. As a matter of fact, tbe reai purpose is to deny the negro the legal right which he now has to vote. "Again, this practice has been carried on until it has not stopped with the negro, but has been ey tended by the dominant factions to the counting out of while men's votes. "Let us be sincere and honest in what we are doing; be open and fair and state openly what we intend to do." The XVth Amendment Should Be Abrogated. ' ' The States said years ago, the first and most important step towards a solution of the Negro pro'blem should be the withdrawal of the right of suffrage to the Ne- groes by abrogating the Fifteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. ' ' — New Orleans States (Dem.) ?9 DISFRANCHISEMENT. The Eepublican Party wrote into the organic law the declaration which pro- claims the civil and political rights of the Afro-American people. The Democratic Party has enacted in the Southern States which it controls, laws which, by means of various devices, are really aimed at the disfranchisement of the race for reasons of color alone. Three attempts have been made by the Democrats 01 Maryland to disfranchise the colored voters of that State. The Maryland Eepublicans have stood solidly against every attempt at disfranchisement, and in two of these fights which have occurred since Mr. Taft's election as President, they have had his active support. In December, 1908, just after Mr. Taft had been elected and before he had been inaugurated, in answer to a letter of the Hon. Wm. F. Stone, Collector of the Port of Baltimore, for the purpose of obtaining his views, the President made the following reply : Taft Opposes Disfranchisement. ' ' My dear Mr. Stone — I have your letter of December 9, but have not been able to answer it until now. I don't think any one can read my North Carolina speech with any care and on that base the belief that I would favor such a bill as that proposed in Maryland. The provision that the first class of eligible voters shall be those persons who on the 1st day of January in the year 1869, or prior thereto, were entitled to vote under the laws of Maryland or any other State of the United States wherein they then resided, and that the male descendents of such persons, as a second class, shall be entitled to vote, was intended to exempt the persons thus made eligible from the educational or property qualifications which follow in the descriptions of the fifth and sixth classes of jersons who shall be entitled to vote. "The same thing may be said of the third and fourth classes, which includes foreign born citizens of the United States naturalized between January 1, 1869, and the date of the adoption of the proposed section and the male descendants of such mentioned persons. This is in order to exempt such immigrants and their descendants from educational or property qualifications. ' ' Now we know the first four classes include no Negroes at all. In other words, it is intended to free the whites from educational or property qualifications, but to subject all Negroes to them. "The whole law ought to be condemned. It is not drawn in the spirit of justice and equality, having regard for the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. and I sincerely hope that no Eepublican who desires equality of treatment to the black and white races will vote for it. Sincerely yours. WILLIAM H. TAFT. THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Large Number of Afro-American Assistants, Clerks and other Employees. Great Work of Research by Daniel Murray, One of the Assistants. The Library of Congress is one of the great libraries of the world. Mr. Daniel Murray, one of the Assistants in the Library has spent many years in research among the books of the Library and has been able to identify approximately 6,000 titles of works by colored authors, and believes quite a third of these refer to books and pamphlets represented in the Library of Congress. The number is being augmented almost daily by the accessions gathered through the Copyright Office. To many who are wont to belittle the literary capacity of the race, this will prove astounding information. Of musical composition by colored composers, the Library has apparently about seven thousand. There are 46 Afro- American employes — 27 of these are employed under the direct supervision of the Librarian of Congress, for strictly library work, and 19 under the Superintendent of the Library Building and Grounds, who has charge of the ' ' care and maintenance ' ' of the building and grounds. The aggregate amount paid for service in the Library Proper is $17,960. the aggregate under the Super- intendent of Building and Grounds is $6,960, or a total of $24,920. 40 REPUBLICAN PARTY FOR LAW AND ORDER. President Taft Denounces Lynching. In Many Public Utterances He has Called it Cowardly Murder. Advocates Rope for Lynchers. In forty years, more than 5,000 persons have been the victims of mobs. Anda- man's, Mississippi has the largest unmber to its discredit. Afro-xxmerican have been lynched xor such causes as race prejudice, informing, making threats, unpopularity, slapping child, being troublesome, testifying against white persons, enticing servants away and m many cases for no cause whatever. The Eepublican Party is essentially the party of law and order. While the Democratic party has condoned lawlessness, the Eepublican party has always stood for the supremacy of the law. j.he majority of the lynchings have taken place in states controlled by the Democratic party. President Taft has denounced lynching in the strongest terms m many public utterances. President Taft Advocates the Rope for Lynchers. At a meeting held April 9, 1912, in Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C, for the purpose of raising funds for the building of a gymnasium at Howard University, President Taft condemned mob law in vigorous language. The President did not mince his words and he was greeted with thundering applause when he de- clared with emphasis, ' ' the man that pulls the rope should hang by the rope. ' ' President Taft said in part: "Now take the matter of lynching. That, as well as the administration of our criminal law, forms a disgraceful page in our social history. (Hearty applause.) I just think it is well to take a text on that subject. (Prolonged applause and cheers.) Now I know that our courts are not perfect. I know that they don't apply the law with certainty and dispatch in the criminal cases as they ought to, and I believe that part of this departure from law as is the case i nlynching and disorder, is due to the fact that courts are not certain and are not full of dispatch in the justice meted out in criminal cases. But we must not attribute it all to the courts. There is among our people a disposition to forget the sanctity of the law and not to know that d civilization in any country can live unless the law is respected. (Prolonged applause.) Now lynching is claimed by some being justified because, as they say it is applied only to persons guilty of one special crime that is particularly heinous to all of us. But that is not true. Statistics show that lynching is applied to those charged with a great many crimes and the moment you transgress once and the mome '; that the mob acquires the wolfish desire for human blooa, the example is dreaaful to the community in which the exhibition of lawlessness is given. (Pro- longed applause.) And there is not any crime (I don't care what it is) that justifies a departure from the law or the summary punishment by a moo of the person who is charged with guilt. (Prolonged applause.) It is one of the serious questions that we have to face in this country. We have not among all of our people as profound a respect for the law and the necessity for obedience to it as we ought to have, and that is part of the reason why we have this exhibition of law- lessness over the country and these cruel murders (for that is what they are, for it is no less a murder when four hundred participate in the killing of one man) ordinarily it is accompanied by a great deal more of cowardice by reason of the fact that four hundred are engaged in such a crime. AND THE ONLY WAY BY WHICH IT CAN BE SUPPRESSED IS THAT SOMETIMES WE SHALL HAVE MEN AS SHERIFFS, MEN AS GOVERNORS, AND AS PROSECUTORS, AND AS JURORS, WHO WILL SEE TO IT THAT THE MEN ENGAGED IN PULLING THE ROPE UNDER THOSE CONDI- TIONS SHALL THEMSELVES SWING BY THE ROPE. (Hearty applause and cheering.) Wherever it occurs it is to be condemned and rooted out and this can only be done by developing an individual and public opinion demanding the en- forcement of the law. And I hold that every one who tends to minimize respect for constituted authority and respect for the law and fail to follow it just as it is, contributes to the continuance of that lawlessness which we deplore theo- retically but, I am sorry to say, at the same ti emwe express too much sympathy with actually. ' ' 41 Accounts of Lynching Makes One's Blood Boil. For a length of time it seems to be altogether abated, and then there will be an outbreak, a mob will be formed, developing the most fiendish cruelty, manifesting itself in the blindest and most unreasonable assault's upon perfectly innocent people simply because of their color. It is only fair to say that such brutish exhibitions are not confined to any one section. It is impossible to read accounts of this sort without having one 's blood boil with indignation that there can reside in the human breast such a savage and beastly impulse and motive. But we must remember two things: First, that in spite of our education and refinement and progress toward Christian ideals we still retain in our nature a great deal of the original animal, and, second, that the spirit of a mob seems to be a different spirit from that of the indivi- dual making it up, and to disclose a more insensate and inhuman state of impulses than it would be possible to find in any one of its members. The best remedy, and the necessary one, is an improvement in the administration of our criminal laws, and the holding to strict account the officers of the law who do not use all possible means to prevent and suppress such outbreaks. — From speech of Judge W. H. Taft, Disccunt on Lynch Rope. At the annual meeting of the Plymouth Cordage Company at Boston sometime since, a stockholder asked President Loring i^ the Company sold any rope in the South for hanging Negroes. This stockholder received the reply that as an actual fact the company has received a request from one of the Southern Democratic States in the lynching belt for a large discount in price if a purchase of its rope was made for lynching pur- poses, it being argued that the publicity which would be given the Plymouth rope for lynching was worth a concession. RACE SEGREGATION. Latest Device of Democrats to Humiliate and Injure the Afro-American People. A Revival of the Ghetto of the Middle Ages. The Democrats in their efforts to antagonize the colored race, have hit upon a new plan in recent years which is practically a revival of the Ghetto of the middle ages, a plan of restricting the residence of Afro-Americans to certain blocks or streets in cities. The West Segregation Ordinance, now in force in Baltimore, was introduced in the City Council by Samuel L. West, councilman from the 13th Ward, passed in March, 1911, and approved by Mayor J. Barry Mahool, on April 7, 1911. It is called ' ' ^_n ordinance for preserving peace, preventing conflict and ill feeling between the white and colored races in Baltimore City and promoting the general welfare of the city, by providing, so far as practicable, for the use of separate blocks by white and colored people for residences, churches and schools. ' ' Councilman West, who is a Democrat, is very proud of his segregation work and has issued a pamphlet with his portrait on the cover, giving the text of the ordinance and the story of its enactment. He explains, in a recent newspaper article, that this was necessary, owing to the great interest in segregation which has been aroused in the Democratic South since the passage of his ordinance. "It has kept me busy sending and explaining copies of the ordinance," said Samuel L. West. "I have never known an instance in which there was greater interest in a city ordinance." The ordinance may seem fair on its face, but that it is the result of race hatred for the Afro-American is evident from the i rguments of certain white property owners who presented a petition to the City Council urging the passage of the segre- gation ordinance because they were law abiding citizens who were entitled to dwell in peace and security, but whose property had been depreciated by an invasion of Negroes, induced by certain real estate agents who wished to buy their homes at reduced rates. The ordinance had the support of the Democratic press and people. The Repub- licans opposed it but as the Democrats had a majority in the City Council, T;hey were unable to prevent the passage of the ordinance. This is made clear on a note in the pamphlet: ]Sote — All persons who voted for the ordinance are Democrats; all who voted against are Republicans. Mr. Jung, who was out of the room, and Messrs. Traut- felter, Frank and Heatwole, all of whom are Democrats, but who were unavoidably absent, declared themselves fully in favor of the ordinance. 42 HOSTILE DEMOCRATS IN THE 62d CONGRESS. Present Number of Bills Inimical to the Afro-American People. Repeal of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Proposed by Congressman Hardwick of Georgia. Congressman Heflin of Alabama Wished to Provide Jim-Crow Cars in the District of Columbia DEMOCRATS HAVE INTRODUCED EVERY BILL ANTAGONISTIC TO THE RACE. For many years, the Democrats in Congress have introduced bills and joint resolutions inimical to the Afro-American people. They have been very active in the present Congress, now that they have the control of the House of Eepresentatives many bills antagonistic to the colored race have been presented to Congress. Because o fa Bepublican President and a Eepubliean Senate, it is impossible for them to enact any of their proposed measures into law but the fact that such legislation has been proposed and has in every instance been offered by a Democrat is proof that the Democratic party would enact inimical legislation if it had the power. On April 12, 1911, Congressman Hardwick, of Georgia introduced two joint resolutions, one H. J. Res. dO, proposing an amendment to repeal the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, and one, H. J. Ees. 61, proposing the repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution. On April 18, 1911, Congressman Hardwick of Georgia introduced a bill, H. B. 5,948, to prohibit in the District of Columbia the intermariage of whites with Negroes or Mongolians. On December 6, 1911, Congressman Heflin of Alabama introduced a Bill, H. R. 14,680, providing that the street car companies of the District of Columbia shall provide separate street cars for White and Negro passengers. Before casting his ballot for the Democratic ticket every Afro-American voter should read the above a second time and then ask himself if it would be safe to aid in putting hostile Democrats into power. TO REPEAL FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT. Copy of Joint Resolution Introduced in Congress by Congressman Hardwick, Democrat of Georgia. 62d CONGRESS TT X T> TD Q Otr\ 1st. Session. Xl. «J. JLtjUlO. OU JOINT RESOLUTION. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. April 12, 1911. Mr. Hardwick introduced the following joint resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Election of President, Vice President, and Repre- sentatives in Congress and ordered to be printed Proposing an amendment to the Constitution by providing that all of section two of the fourteenth amendment except its first sentence shall be repealed. 1 'Resolved by the Senate and House of Eepresentatives of the United States 2 of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein). 3 That the following amendment to the Constitution be proposed to the legislatures 4 of the several States, which, when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislatures, shall become and be a part of the Constitution, namely ' That the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States be, and the same is hereby, repealed. ' ' 43 HON. CHAKLES A. COTTEILL Collector of Internal Revenue, Hawaii. HON. R. W. TYLER Auditor for the Navy Department, Washington. HON. JOSEPH E. LEE Collector of Internal Revenue, Jack- sonville, Ela. HON. N. W. ALEXANDER Register of Land Office, Montgomery, Ala. THE JIM-CROW CAR. How the Democratic Legislators of the South Endeavcr to Degrade and Humiliate the Afro-American. In their efforts to degrade and humiliate the race, the Democratic legislators of every Southern State have provided a system of ' ' jim crow ' ' cars for Afro- Americans. The laws say that the accomodations ' ' shall be equal, but separate. ". As a matter of fact, they are seldom equal and usually very inferior, especially on the smaller lines, where wornout cars, which are generally in a filthy condition, are for Afro-Americans. On the larger roads better cars are used, but the ' ' jim-crow ' ' car is generally placed next to the locomotive, where the occupants get the full benefit of the dust and smoke, and are in a dangerous position in case of accident. Several States have enacted laws forbidding sleeping, car companies to sell berths to Afro-Americans. These laws were not passed lor the reason that Southern Democrats are anxious to avoid close proximity to Afro-Americans, for servants are allowed under the law to ride in the same car with the whites. The idea, which is to humiliate the race, is clearly expressed by H. D. Wilson, a prominent Louisiana Democrat, greatly in- terested in ''jim-crow" legislation, who said: "It is not only the desire to separate the whites and blacks on the railroad for the comfort it will provide, but also for the moral effect. The separation of the races is one of benefit, but the demonstration of the superiority of the white man over the negro is a greater thing. There is nothing which shows it more conclusively than the compelling of negroes to ride in cars marked for their especial use. " Cattle Car Accommodations for Afro-Americans. The following from St. Luke Herald, Eichmond, Va., gives a good idea of the ' 'jim-crow" accommodations provided for colored people in the Southern Democratic States : "In these warm and prespiring days Negroes are cooped up in the smallest possible space in one end of the baggage car. But they are not even allowed to occupy this limited space for the news butcher comes along and occupies two seats in the 'jim-crow' corner and the conductor generally occupies two seats with his be- longings usually just across from the newsboy. ' ' The smoking department on the C. and O. trains is a stifling, narrow affair, into which four persons may squeeze and stifle should they desire to smoke. Usually one toilet of the narrowest dimensions and primitive appointments serves both male and female travelers. Dirty tin cups are sometimes furnished for drinking pur- poses, while the car just in the rear, or the car beyond the "white smoking car, generally has a lavatory with soap and towel and a glass for drinking purposes. The aisles in the White coaches are generally carpeted while the aisles in the ' Jim- Crow ' car are as innocent of carpet as the floor is of cleanliness." 'THE PRESIDENT Of the United States Can Have No More Sacred Function than to Speak Words of Encouragement." "With your effort to uplift yourselves, I have the deepest sympathy. The President of the United States can have no more sacred function than to speak words of encouragement and hope to assist your own efforts. Fate in the past has not been kind to you, and the whole American people has the highest obligation of trusteeship and guardianship for your uplift. ' ' I say to the colored men and women of this country that hard as your lot has been and hard as the road is likely to be, it will be a road onward if you abide by your consciences and by ideals of self restraint, and that you will attain a con- dition you hardly dream of to-day." — Address of President Taft to Afro-American citizens of Atlanta, Ga., at Bethel Church. 45 COLORED RACE HAS HIGH IDEALS. Said President Taft in Recent Address, Believes That Race Needs Men in Learned Professions COLLEGE EDUCATION ESSENTIAL TO FULL DEVELOPMENT Every once in a "while you will meet a man whose vision is a bit clouded, who talks about the waste of money in teaching men of your race the curriculum of an aca- demic institution. Instead of sending them to the university, the claim has been made that they should he sent to manual training institutions. Such a man has never thought deeply on the subject and does not understand that as a race which is striving upward and onward you need many who shall be leaders — men who shall figure in the learned professions, many of them as physicians, as lawyers, and especially as ministers. Believes Race Has High Ideals. I believe in the higher education of the Negro so that the leaders of the Negro race may have high ideals, and I believe they have. I believe that they subscribe, as perhaps some other in our community life do not, to the majisty of the law and have respect for constituted authority. (Hearty applause,) and for our institutions under our Constitution as they are. (Hearty applause.) — President Taft at Howard University Meeting. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY Is What the Law Should Provide for All— The .Proposal to Repeal th« Fifteenth Amendment Dead Issue. I come at once to the present condition of things, stated from a constitutional and political stanpoint. And that is this: That in all the Southern States it is possible, by election laws prescribing proper qualifications for the suffrage, which square with the Fifteenth Amendment and which shall be equally administered as between the black and white races, to prevent entirely the possibility of a domination of Southern State, county or municipal governments by an ignorant electorate, white or black. It is further true that the sooner such laws, when adopted, are applied with exact equality and justice to the two races, the better for the moral tone of State and community concerned. Negroes should be given an opportunity equally with whites, by education and thirft, to meet the requirements of eligibility which the State legislatures in their wisdom shall lay down in order to secure the safe exercise of the electoral franchise. The proposal to repeal the Fifteenth Amendment is utterly impracticable and should be relegated to the limbo of forgotten issues. It is very certain that any party founded on the proposition would utterly fail in a national canvas. What we are considering is something practical, something that means attainable progress. All that the law or Constitution attempt to secure is equality of opportunity before the law and in the pursuit of happiness, and in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property. — From speech of President-elect W. H. Taft, at dinner of the North Carolina Society of New York. A Dare-Devil Menace to Our Control. "We thought then (in 1901, when the new Alabama Constitution disfranchising the Negro was under discussion), as we do now, that the menace to peace, the danger to society and white supremacy was not in the illiterate Negro, but in the upper branches of Negro society, the educated man, who, after ascertaining his political rights, forced the way to assert them. We, the Southern people, enter- tain no prejudice toward the ignorant per se inoffensive Nesrro. But our blood boils when the educated Negro asserts himself politically. We regard each as- sertion as an unfriendly encroachment upon our native superior rights, and a dare-devil menace to our control of the affairs of the state. Hence, we present that the way to avert the impending horrors is to emasculate the Negro politi- cally by repealing the 15th amendment of the Constitution of the United States. ' ' — Charles P. Lane, Editor Huntsville (Ala.) Daily Tribune. 46 'YOU STOOD LIKE A SOLID ROCK.' Said President Taft to the Delegates of the National Civil and Political League in Address at White House. Praises Firm Stand of the Afro-American Delegates at Chicago. Denounces Lynching. About fifty of the delegates to the convention of the National Civil and Polit- ical Negro League which met in Washington in July, were received by President Taft at the White House, Thursday July 18, 1912. The President in a speech in the East Room publicly acknowledged his debt of gratitude to the Afro-American delegates to the Republican National Convention, pledged and instructed for him, who stood with the Taft forces through the fight. "You Stood Like a Rock/' ' ' 1 want to say to you, ' ' said the President, ' ' how much I appreciate your standing firm in my behalf at a time when it was intimated to the country that we could not depend upon you. You demonstrated there your appreciation of the ac- complishments of the Republican party for your race in the past, and your abiding faith in its f urture friendship ; you stood like a solid rock. ' ' Bitterly Denounces Mob Law. With respect to lynchings the President said that every time opportunity pre- sented itself he had with as much emphasis as language would permit expressed him- self ' ' in condemnation of lynching. ' ' Mr. Taft said that it was a disgrace to the country, and the only cure was the conviction of the lynchers and the hanging of a few of them. He said that federal jurisdiction of lynching was not permissible under the Constitution, lynching being an ordinary crime, and that "such crimes under our form of government must be covered by state laws. ' ' The President suggested that the best way to stamp out this awful crime is by arousing public sentiment against it and ' ' administering certain and fitting punish- ment for those who are guilty. ' ' The President bitterly denounced mob law and said that petitions for Executive clemency to anyone guilty of lynching which might come before him will be received ' ' with that feeling on my part that there is no crime that ought to be more severely punished and more completely condemned. ' ' Rights of the Afro-American. The President took up the subject of general rights of the Afro- American, saying: ' ' The Republican party ought to be maintained because of its useful past and its useful future. It has been t*_e party for the maintenance of the equal rights of tne Negro. It has not always succeeded in rounding out those rights in accordance with the letter of the Constitution, but it has accepted the responsibility, and every member of the party who is conscious of what it ought to stand for is ready to continue the fight for your constitutional rights. Recently we have had an agitation concerning an amendment to the Constitution which would affect the guarantee of life, liberty and property that we have all valued so highly, and which have come down to us from our ancestors. 'YOU ARE AMERICANS. The Only Flag Ycu Know Is the Stars and Stripes — Ycu have Given Ycur Blcod in Defense cf the Flag. ' ' The idea that the South can afford, ' ' said Mr. Taft, ' ' to have the Afro- American transplanted to rome other country, to me always sound d like a joke. They tried that down in Mississippi, and they mere going to move them, not out of the country to Africa but only across the river, and they had a riot. Of course, that is absurd. 1 want to ao.^ that I always want to say before an Afro-American audience that you are Americans. The idea of transplanting you is utterly absurd. The only flag you know is the Stars and Stripes, and you are of a race that has given up their lives and moistened the ground with their blood in defense of that flag, and will continue to do so. ' ' — Address of President Taft at Y. M. C. A., Augusta, Ga. 47 INTERESTING FACTS. About Afro-Americans in the Service of the United States Government Under Republican Administration. There are 417 Afro- American employees in the New York City post Office, drawing annual salaries aggregating in round numbers, $396,300. Public school officials and teachers receiving from $500 per annum to $3,000 per annum, 566 in number, with an aggregate annual compensation of $537,000, are employed under the Government of the District of Columbia. There are 1,529 Afro-Americans enlisted in the United States Navy, receiving an aggregate salary of $678,000. One hundred and seventy-three Afro-Americans employed in the St. Louis, Mo., Post Office, draw salaries aggregating $152,000, annually. In Eichmond, Virginia, Post Office there are 87 Afro- American employees whose salaries aggregate $78,500, annually. Sixty-six Afro-Americans are employed in the Louisville, Kentucky, Post Office, and they are paid salaries amounting to $59,440 annually. There are 36 colored employees in the Cleveland, Ohio, Post Office, who draw salaries aggregating $35,500 annually. Mr. James A. Cobb, Special District Attorney for the District of Columbia, prepares cases for prosecution under the Pure Food Law, and has charge of natura- lization and forfeited bond cases. Mr. Mifflin W. Gibbs was elected City Judge of Little Eock, Arkansas, by the Eepublicans of that city in 1873, and was the first man of the race to be so honored. S. L. Williams, Esq., Special Assistant District Attorney at Chicago, is an Afro- American. He has charge of important special work. Twelve Afro-American employees in the Wilmington, Delaware, Post Office, are paid salaries aggregating $11,000 annually. There are fifty-seven colored employees in the Mobile, Alabama, Post Office, who receive annually $56,533. The colored employees in the Washington Office of the Isthmian Canal Commission, receive annually salaries amounting to $7,200. In the Post Office at Brooklyn, New York, there are 18 Afro-American employees whose salaries aggregate $16,120 annually. There are 8 Afro- American employees in the Hartford, Conn., Post Office, and they draw salaries aggregating $9,300, annually. All of the letter carriers at Jackson, Mississippi, are Afro-Americans. There are in all 33 colored employees in the U. S. service and their annual salaries aggregate $29,200. The 43 railway postal clerks in Lousiana, running out of New Orleans, receive $49,800 in salaries annually. In the Chicago Post Office there are 605 Afro-American employees whose annual salaries aggregate $554,300. Eight Afro-Americans employed in the penitentiary service under the Depart- ment of Justice — 4 at Atlanta, Ga., and 4 at Leavenworth, Kansas, receive $7,780 in annual salaries. 48 DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN RODDENBERY. Makes Infamous Speech in Congress Against Colored Race While Attempting to "Jim Crow" Afro-American Veterans. On May 10, 1912, Congressman Eoddenbery, a Georgia Democrat, made an unsuccessful attempt to compel the Government to create "Jim Crow" Soldiers' homes throughout the country for Afro-Americans veterans. The House had under consideration at the time the conference report on the Sherwood Pension bill (H. K. 24016) granting pensions and increase of pensions to certain soldiers and sailors of the Civil War and certain widows and dependent children of soldiers and sailors of said war. Eoddenbery offered an amendment, which provided that no pensions should be allowed inmates of national soldiers' homes unless whites and blacks are cared for in separate domiciles and grounds. In support of his contention Eoddenbery made a vile speech against the Afro- American race, which was promptly answered by Congressman Martin B. Madder of Illinois. As Eoddenbery 's speech shows something of the attitude of the Democratic party toward the colored man, it is copied verbatim from the Congressional Eecord. Mr. Finley. Has the gentleman seen or heard of that famous picture of the ex-President of the United States charging up San Jaun on a black charger, when there was not a horse within 40 miles of that battle ground? Mr. Eoddenbery. I have not seen the picture. I do not know whether it is so or not, but that black charger brings this to mind: If you really want to do some- thing for these good Spanish War boys, go down here to this Pension Office and take out the Africans, turn them out of their jobs, and give the places to our Spanish War soldiers, and keep them there as long as they are able to work and labor. Let them administer a Caucasian government supported by Caucasian taxpayers. When they get too old, if indigent, then consider pensioning them; then go down Pennsyl- vania Avenue to this massive War and Navy Building, walk up and down the aisles, and take those black sons of the cocoanut region who sit there with big brown drops of sweat coming out of their foreheads, kick them out, and put these old veterans of the Civil War there by those tables, at those telephones under those electric fans, and as long as they are able to labor let them have the benefit of the Nation's offices and gratitude. You have taken those old heroes of that great struggle and sent them out to labor and toil to pay taxes to support these Africans, for whom they offered their lives that they might be free. If you have anything to give out, go to the sons of these veterans of the Civil War and bring them from the mine, bring them from the field and shop and fill these negroes' places with them. Let not the old pioneer of this country at 90 years of age be felling a tree in the forest, where by reason of his infirmity he drops dead beneath its shock. Give him and his kind a quiet and easy position now enjoyed by a "kinky head." Take this class of men in their infirmity and give them these do-nothing, sitting- down jobs, and turn this mixed brood of African tree climbers out to earn a living on the farms and in the fields. (Laughter). You can fool the white people of this country no longer by putting a fellow here and there in an office and giving him a salary and telling him how he shall vote. They are tired being paid off with $50 jobs while the African draws $100. Times are changed and the sons of these old veterans are not going to stand for it any longer. They are not going to let their fathers go out and fight for four years to give the Ethiopian liberty and then submit to our taxing them the balance of their lives to give back Africans jobs in all these departments around here. So if you want to do something for the Spanish War soldier and the son of a veteran of the Civil War and the old veteran himself, fire these political signposts out. There are about 50,000 of them drawing all the way from $3,000 to $300. Put the Anglo-Saxon in. They are honorable; they are our blood. They helped save this country, if saved it was. They have made this country and will perpetuate it. Do something for them now. Turn Africa out and let America in. This ebony-hued tribe have thousands of comfortable positions, sitting on plush-bottom chairs, with feet resting on stone tiling, with ears listening to the hum of the electric fans while pictures of our mighty men are hanging on the walls around them. Year in and year out these black-tinted Africans, emitting the com- pound aroma of cucumber and onion, do nothing and draw salaries, and my people and yours labor to furnish the gold to pay them with. Go down to the Bureau 49 of Printing and Engraving where there stands a pure white girl working day by day and next to her a black negro working day by day — The SPEAKER. The time of the gentleman has expired. Mr. Eoddenbery. Fire them out! Fire them out! Fire them out! (Laughter) if you have got Caucasian blood in your veins kick them out. In their places establish the soldier, his sons, and his daughters, the builders and the preservers of this Republic. REPUBLICAN ANSWERS RODDENBERY Congressman Madden of Illinois Defends the Afro-Amercian Against the Georgian and Lauds the Heroes of the Race. Congressman Martin B. Madden of Illinois replied a sfollows: I am astonished that any man on this floor would introduce such an amendment as this to a bill seeking to pay pensions to soldiers who served their country. I can not sit here without saying a word in opposition to such an amendment. It ought not to be considered by the House for a moment. I hope with all my heart that every vote in the House will be cast against it. No men fought more bravely than the black men. They are entitled to their full share of credit for preserving the Nation. You say their liberties were at stake 1 Yes ; and so was the liberty of every other person in the land. Thank God the close of the war brought liberty alike to the North and to the South, to the whites and to the blacks, and that today we live in a land where slavery is no more, where every citizen is a sovereign. I grieve to see the gentleman from Georgia express such bitterness toward the Negro. He should be one of the colored man's ablest defenders. He should be advocating measures to help the Negro to help himself. The Afro-American has made wonderful progress considering his lack of opportunity. He is a good citizen, a gallant • soldier. He should be encour- aged, not reviled. Who led the successful charge at El Caney at San Juan Hill? Was it not the colored man? Who questioned his color then? Did anyone revile him? Not at all. All praised his valor, all applauded his intrepidity. He is brave, he is fearless, he is easily led, he makes a good soldier, he is entitled to be honored no less than his white brother. The colored veteran soldier should receive the same tender care in his declining years that we are proud to accord to the white men who rendered equal service to the Nation. We should know no color in ministering to the wants of those who gave their all in defense of the country. Who made the Nation great? Who made us one people, inseparable now and forever? Who questioned the color of the soldier's skin when he enlisted to fight for the preservation of the Union? (Applause.) No man cared whether he was colored or white. The question then was, Was he a patriot, was he willing to give his life to the service of his country? He offered all he had when he offered his life. The country owes him a debt of gratitude for the work he did in the dark days of trouble. Gentlemen, strike down the color line. Defeat the amendment offered by the gentleman from Georgia, and let the news spread into every home in this broad land of the free that Congress will tolerate no discrimination in the treatment of the country's veteran soldiers on account of the color of their skin. (Applause) The fundamental law of the United States prohibits slavery and involuntary servitude, but in portions of the South where the Democrats rule, lawless people have taken advantage of the lax observance of civil rights as applied to the Afro- American and have held their darker-hued brethren in a state of peonage. This practice has been very common, but under the Taft Administration, the Depart- ment of Justice has prosecuted a number of the miscreants, who may now be ad- dressed "Care Federal Prison, Atlanta, Ga. " Peonage is not so popular as it used to be in the Democratic South. - ' President Taft has denounced lynching in more vigorous terms than any other President. He advocated the rope for lynchers. -••""' Tn : Cuba 'the' Afro- American soldiers astonished the world by their bravery arid ''ebdlness under fire. They were fighting to free the beautiful isle from the Spanish yoke. It was a Republican President, McKinley, .who commissioned 266 men of the race to lead their men to battle, 50 TRUE TO PRESIDENT TAFT. Afro-American Delegates to the Republican National Convention at Chicago. Stood Firm for Taft Although Roosevelt Agents Offered Strong Inducements for them to Desert the President. The renomination of President Taft was to a large extent made possible by the unwavering loyalty of the great body of Afro-American delegates, who held the balance of power in the Chicago convention. Although Eoosevelt agents held out inducements of every kind for them to desert the President, they spurned the offers and voted as they were instructed for William Howard Taft. Just before the convention stories were circulated by the enemies of the race that the Afro-American delegates were venal and would desert the President when the crisis came, but to their everlasting credit be it said that they proved faithful to their trusts. In addition to the great work for their country in voting for the renomination of a great and good President, they rendered a distinct service to their people by demonstrating to the world that their honor was unpurchasable. COLORED MEN IN CONGRESS. All Republicans. No Afro-American Democrat Ever Sat in the National Legislature. A score of Afro- Americans have had the honor to sit in the Congress of the United States, and every one was sent there by the Eepublican party. No colored man has ever been elected to Congress on the Democratic ticket. Here the names of those who were elected and seated. A number of Afro- Americans have been elected to Congress, who were not seated. SENATORS. Hiram E. Eevels of Mississippi. Blanche K. Bruce of Mississippi. REPRESENTATIVES. E. H. Cain or South Carolina. Henry P. Cheatham of North Carolina. Eobert C. DeLarge of South Carolina. Eobert Brown Elliott of South Carolina. Jere Haralson of Alabama. John H. Hyman of North Carolina. James E. O'Hara of North Carolina. John E. Lynch of Mississippi. John M. Langston of Virginia. Thomas E. Miller of South Carolina. George W. Murray of South Carolina. Charles E. Nash of Louisiana. Joseph H. Eainey of South Carolina. Benjamin S. Turner of Alabama. Josiah T. Walls of Florida. George H. White of North Carolina. Jefferson H. Long of Georgia. James T. Eapier of Alabama. Alonzo J. Eansier of South Carolina. The First Afro-American Senator. The first Afro-American who ever sat in the United States Senate as a duly qualified member was Hiram E. Eevels. He was elected by the Legislature of Mississippi, and he served from February, 1870 to March of the next year. Eevels was born in North Carolina, of free parents, in 1822; and desiring 'in education, he went to Indiana, where he attended the Quaker College at Liberty. L<ater he studied at Knox College, in Illinois, and in 1847 he became a preacher in the kfrican Methodist Episcopal Church. He went about the country speaking about slavery, and at the breaking out of the war he organized Negro regiments in Mis- souri and Maryland. In 1869 he went to Natchez, Miss., where he was elected a Inember of the city council. His next office was that of United States Senator. 51 HON. EMMETT J. SCOTT Late Commissioner to Liberia. MES. MAEY C. BOOZE Postmaster, Mound Bayou, Miss. : ':'' • ; *' m -«»c LNtfi HON. P. B. S. PINCHBACK Bevenue Agent, New York City. HON. JOHN E. BUSH Eeceiver of Public Moneys, Little Rock. Ark. SHORT PARAGRAPHS. On Recent Events Which Show the Unfriendly Democratic Attitude toward the Afro-American People of the Country. In Alabama Congressman Underwood says the Negro "does not count for any- thing politically." Louisiana has a colored population of more than j.50,000 of voting age, of which number nearly 70,000 can read and write, yet in the general election of 1908 only 1,743 were registered as voters, and nearly all of these were victims of Louisiana's minority ' ' white primary. ' ' Judge Cochran of Atlanta, Ga., wanted to throw out a vote cast by a Negro, and said that it made no difference for whom the Negro voted, and that his being a democrat gave him no right to cast a ballot in a strictly white primary. The Virginia Senate recently passed a bill which permits any city or town within the State to segregate Afro-Americans. The Maryland House of Delegates defeated by a vote of 76 to 11 the Anti- Lynching Bill. It was argued by one of the opponents of the bill that although ' ' Ohio and Illinois have this bill in their statutes, but there isn 't a Southern S^ate that has it and I believe there are good reasons why all of them should not. I don't think Maryland wants to begin this." A bill has been passed by the Democratic legislature of Louisiana which authorizes any city or town in that state to segregate homes of Afro-Americans by refusing building permits. In Senator Tillman's state of South Carolina the jim-crow steam railroad law h is been in effect for many years. Now an effort is being made to separate the races on the street railway cars. In a Southern Democratic city a mass meeting was held in a CHURCH, at which resolutions were passed pledging signers to refrain from selling their property to Negroes if that property adjoins property in the possession of white persons. The Attorney-General of Texas has handed down an opinion that Afro-Americans may be prohibited from voting at ' ' white ' ' primaries. FOR WHITE VOTE ONLY. Democratic Senator Newlands Talks in United States Senate in Favor of Restricting Suffrage to White Race. In the discussion in the Senate August 24, on the general deficiency bill, Senator Newlands, who presented a plank to the Baltimore convention dealing with the race question, laid the foundation for the future consideration of that subject, which, he said, he believed was bound to become one of the most serious problems the American people would be called upon to solve. ' ' For many years, ' ' said Senator Newlands, ' ' I have been profoundly impressed by the radical complications of the United States, holding within its boundaries, as it does, nearly 12,000,000 of blacks, and facing on the Pacific hundreds of millions of people of the brown and yellow races, who look upon the United States as the promised land of opportunity. 1 i At the Baltimore Democratic convention I presented a platform plank proposing to restrict suffrage in an immigration to this country to people of the white race. Roosevelt Changes Views. ''Later Mr. Roosevelt, whose views regarding the right of the blacks in the South have hitherto been in marked hostility to the prevailing sentiment of the South, astonished the country by his declaration in favor of organizing a Progressive party as a white party in the South and as a white and black party in the North. HOB TAFT ADMINISTRATION WINS. Attorney General Wickersham Victorious in His Battle for His Afro-Ameri- can Assistant Attorney General W. H. Lewis. Backed by President Taft, Attorney General Wickersham has for many months made a determined fight against the color-line and at the meeting of the American Bar Association of Milwaukee August 27, he scored a great victory when the Association voted to retain as members: William H. Lewis, Assistant Attorney General of the United States, Butler R. Wilson of Boston and Wm. R. Morris of Minneapolis. The executive committee, headed by S. S. Gregory, of Chicago, president of the association, presented a special report, declaring it has been against the association's policy to admit colored members, and saying that Lewis, Wilson, and Morris were seated on recommendations of local councils without the fact that they were Afro-Americans being made generally known. The report asserted the eligibility of the men to membership is not affected by the report, and leaves open the question whether the association wants to admit Afro- Americans hereafter. Ralph W. Breckinridge, of Omaha, Nebr., submitted a minority report, opposing the committee's action revoking the election of the colored men. OPPOSES NEGRO POLICE. Democratic Senator Hoke Smith of Georgia Would Have No Afro-Americans on the Force in the Capital City. Senator Hoke Smith, of Georgia, appeared in the police court at Washington, D. C, July 8, 1912, as counsel for Grover Kelly, a young white boy of Macon, Ga., who had been arrested by a colored policeman for making remarks derogatory to colored bluecoats in general. Senator Smith was accompanied by Eepresentatives Bartlett and Hughes, of Geor- gia. They learned that Kelly, who came to Washington last week to be a chauffer, had wandered down by the Potomac last Sunday morning early to watch some fishermen. Seeing a colored policeman, he expressed surprise, and remarked that such a sight would not be tolerated in the South, and for a colored policeman to attempt to arrest a white man would start a riot. Find No Case Docketed. This remark was repeated to the policeman by one of the onlookers, and the guardian of the law applied his night stick to the young man and took him to the nearest precinct, from where he was later released on a cash bond. When the three Georgia legislators walked into the police station they were told that no case had been docketed, and that the cash collateral had been returned to Kelly. They then went into executive session with the district attorney, and expressed their opinion of colored policemen in general. Opposed to Colored Police. "If this Negro policeman had wanted to prosecute this young white boy, he could probably have brought in a half dozen witnesses to swear that Kelly was the aggressor," said Senator Smith. "But I want to tell you that I would take the word of this good boy, whom I know, in preference to that of 100 policemen. "I am opposed to the practice of having colored policemen in the District. It is a source of danger bv constantly engendering racial friction, and is offensive to thousands of Southern white people who make their homes here. These places ought to be filled by good white men." Not a Mistake to give Citizenship. 1 ' Instead of asserting that it was a mistake to give the Afro-American the rights of citizenship, we should devote all our thought and energies to raising him to the point to qualify him to exercise his precious right. We should educate him and do everything in our power to make a good citizen of him. He needs encouragement, and we' owe it to ourselves to do all in our power to elevate him. ' '—Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois. 54 INTERESTING ITEMS. About Afro-Americans in the Service of the United States Government Under Republican Administration. Mr. H. H. Garner an Afro-American entered the postal service at Little Eock in 1890 when he was appointed letter carrier. The force then consisted of nine carriers. Mr. Garner in now Superintendent of Carriers. There are now 46 Afro- American employees whose salaries aggregate $43,700 per annum. The 60 letter carriers employed in the Post Office at Memphis Tenn., receive salaries aggregating $64,400 per annum. T. J. Galbreath, Deputy Marshal of the Federal Court at New Orleans, La., receives a salary of $1,400 per annum. Eight bailiffs receive an aggregate annual compensation of $5,313. In taking the Thirteenth Decennial Census in 1910, there were employed in the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce and Labor at Washington, 273 Afro- Americans as temporary clerks and they received salaries aggregating $288,101. According to the Kebellion Becords there were 186,017 Afro- American soldiers enlisted in the Union Army for the civil war. It is estimated that there are now living between 37,000 and 38,000 Afro-American pensioners. There are 93 Afro- American employees in the Pension Bureau drawing $89,340 in salaries annually.. Dr. S. L. Carson, Assistant Surgeon of Freedman's Hospital receives a salary of $1,500 per annum. Dr. George W. Davis, anaesthetist receives $1,200 per annum. The Afro- Americans employed under the Eevenue Cutter Service in the Treasury Department at the port of Wilmington, N. C, receive compensation to the amount of $3,000 annually. The 14 colored letter carriers employed at the Muskogee, Okla., Post Office receive $13,400 annually in salaries. The Afro-American employees under the Treasury Service at Charleston, S.C., are paid aggregate annual salaries of $3,480. Mr. H. C. Cantwell is correspondence and account current clerk in the U. S. Custom Service at Key West, Florida. The aggregate annual salaries of the 16 Afro- American employees in the Galves- ton Post Office amount to $15,120. The Afro-Americans employed under the Treasury Department in Pensacola, Fla., are paid $3,660 annually. There are 7 Afro-American carriers in the Post Office at Greenville Miss., and their annual salaries aggregate $6,300. The Afro-American employed under the Treasury Department at Jacksonville, Fla., receive $6,140 annually. - The aggregate salaries of the regular clerks and carriers in the Post Office at St. Paul, Minn., amount to $14,400 annually. - •■' - ■■'-■ ' : ■■■;: -..'.- The colored employees under the service of the Treasury Department at' Dayton, Ohio, receive annual salaries amounting to $2,500. The Post Master and all of the employees of the Beaufort, S. C. Post Office are Afro-Americans. 55 THE BLACK CODES. In 1865 and 1866, the Southern legislatures composed entirely of Democrats passed a series of infamous laws, known as the Black Codes. We give a few extracts : South Carolina. Extracts from an Act to Establish and Eegulate Domestic Eelations of Persons of Color. (Approved December 21, 1865.) Contracts for Service. Sec 35. All persons of color who make contracts for service or labor shall be known as servants, and those with whom they contract shall be known as masters. Sec. 43. No written contract shall be required when the servant voluntarily receives no remuneration except food and clothing. Sec. 45. On farms or in outdoor service, the hours of labor shall be from sunrise to sunset. See. 46. All lost time, not caused by the act of the master may be deducted from the wages of the servant; and food, nursing and other necessaries for the servant, whilst he is absent from work on account oi sickness, may also be deducted from his wages. Sec. 47. Visitors or other persons shall not be invited or allowed by the servant to come or remain upon the premises of the master without his express permission. Sec. 49. Servants shall not be absent from the premises without the permission of the master. Sec. 50. The master shall not be liable to pay for any additional or extraordin- ary services or labor of his servants, the same being necessary, unless by his express agreement. Sec. 52. Instead of discharging the servant, the master may complain to the district judge or one of the magistrates, who shall have the power, on being satisfied of the misconduct complained of to inflict, or cause to be inflicted on the servant, suitable corporal punishment, or impose upon him such pecuniary fine as may be thought fit, and immediately to remand him to his work; which fine shall be deducted from his wages, if not otherwise paid. Sec. 57. The master shall not be bound to furnish medicine or medical assis- tance for his servant, without his express agreement. Sec. 72. No person of color shall pursue or practice the art, trade, or business of an artisan, mechanic or shopkeeper, or any other trade, employment or business (except that of husbandry or that of a servant under contract for service or labor), on his own account and for his own benefit, until he shall have obtained a license therefor from the judge of the district court, which license shall be good for one year only, upon the payment by the applicant to the clerk of the district court of one hundred dollars, if a shopkeeper or peddler, to be paid annually, and ten dollars if a mechanic, or to engage in any other trade. Sec. 79. Leases of a house or land to a person of color shall be in writing. If there be no written lease, or the term of the lease shall have expired, a person of color in possession shall be a tenant at will, and shall not be entitled to notice; and on complaint by any person interested to the judge of the district court or a magistrate such person of color shall be instantly .ejected by order or warrant, unless he produce a written lease authorizing his possession, or prove that such writting existed and was lost. Afro- Americans in close Congressional districts should work hard to elect Ee- publican Congressmen. We cannot afford to lose a single district. A Eepublican Congress is needed to uphold a Eepublican President. The Democratic South has already disfranchised the Afro-American. Now many prominent Democrats in the North and West as well as in the South, favor the repeal of the fifteenth amendment. About 500,000 Afro-American young men will be eliHHe to oast their first presidential votes in November, and if they are wise they'll begin life right by voting the Eepublican ticket. President Taft stands for the higher education of -the Afro-American people. 56 ROOSEVELT'S HOSTILITY TO THE AFRO-AMERICAN. Southern Colored Delegates to the Roosevelt Convention at Chicago Barred by His Order. Color Line Sharply Drawn. The Boasted Open Door Now Closed. LINCOLN ENFRANCHISED US; ROOSEVELT DISFRANCHISED US, SAID ONE COLORED DELEGATE. Like Slaveholders of Old Days Before the War, Said, When Asked About Holding Men in Bondage, Roosevelt Said, "It is For Their Own Good." I. Theodore Eoosevelt, in a letter to Julian Harris of Atlanta, written a few days before the Eoosevelt convention at Chicago, made it plain that the Eoosevelt party would have two distinct policies on the race question — one for Afro-Americans in the North and an entirely different policy for the race in the South, whose votes, where they have any, can do his party no good. Colored men from the South, he intimated, would be unwelcome, if not barred j as delegates to the Bull Moose National Convention. Colored delegates, however, ! would be welcomed and recognized as on an equal footing with white men in those i states where the party, by the aid of Afro-American ballots stands a chance to | win. Venality in Eepublican National Conventions for many years was charged i against the Southern Negro. He declared there is no real Eepublican party in the j South and that colored delegates selected represented nothing more than their own i greed for money or office. I II. When the Eoosevelt convention met in Chicago, August 5, the programme as ; laid down by Eoosevelt was carried out to the letter and colored delegates from the South were barred for no other reason than the color of their skins. P. W. Howard, one of the colored delegates, in voicing his protest said: "Now we are told that for political expediency the colored man is not to be recognized in the South. We are told that Theodore Eoosevelt is a second Lincoln. Lincoln was the man who enfranchised us, but this committee acting in the name of , Theodore Eoosevelt, now seeks to disfranchise us. We are told that we are not wanted, | not because we are not good citizens, not because we are not Progressives, but be- j cause we are colored. ' ' Many other colored delegates protested against the color line being drawn, but all of the colored delegates from the South were barred from the convention by order of Eoosevelt. III. Col. Eoosevelt during his "confession of faith" in the convention August 6, was heckled by a spectator, who interrupted him with the demand: "What about the Negro question?" Eoosevelt proceeded at length to state his views on the race question, upholding his action in barring the Southern colored delegates and stating that he did it for their own good. IV. In an interview given out by Theodore Eoosevelt, at Oyster Bay, August 10, he admits that his party faced a monentary crisis in Chicago over the color problem. ' ' I felt, ' ' said the Colonel, ' ' that the time had come to put a party in the field that was unsullied by the taint of the vicious, selfish type of black. When I got to Chicago, I found that we were on the verge of the breaking point because of the stand I had taken. I was advised that it was wrong to attempt any discrimination at all against the blacks. To these well-meaning people I replied that the new party had to face the problem of holding out against the type of colored men who stood for nothing in our political life but selfish office seeking, who fastened himself to the party for what he could get out of it. * * * * I told them we're to leave it to the Southern States, as our party advanced, to determine what colored men ought , to be allowed in and whom we were to exclude. * * * * After serious conference I there in Chicago, those who had opposed me came to see that it was right and we | took a solid stand in the convention * * * * We are sure to attract to our cause 57 men who believe that the black can best be helped by putting him on his own honor. * * * * I felt that as the leader of the Progressive party I must take the initiative in the race problem. 7 ' The so-called Progressive convention which met in Chicago, August 5, was ab- solutely dominated by Theodore Eoosevelt and the barring of the Southern colored delegates was done by his explicit command. He was willing to bar the Southern colored man because already he is practi- cally disfranchised and his vote does not count anyway, but was careful to welcome the colored delegates from the states in which colored men were permitted to vote and whose votes would be likely to aid the Bull Moose party. Would Abraham Lincoln, with Avhom he is wont to compare himself have resorted to such political expediency ? Is it true as Roosevelt says, that Southern colored men are vicious and venal? The facts in the case prove to the contrary. A large proportion of the really great men of the race, men who labored earn- estly and unselfishly for the uplift of the Afro-American people were born in the South. The delegates to the Republican National Convention at Chicago in June, were men of the highest character, men who raised the race in the esteem of the world, by their firm stand for President Taft, for whom they were instructed, in spite of the fact that Roosevelt's agents offered many and strong inducements for them to barter their honor. The Southern colored delegates to the Roosevelt convention were men of high standing in their respective communities, but they were barred from participation in the convention, not because they were venal and vicious but solely on account of color. A large majority of the Afro- Americans, President Taft has honored by appoint- ments to office, were born in the South. They have administered their offices honestly and efficiently, with credit to themselves and honor to their race. Many of these men have been prominent in the Republican party in the South. Does Mr. Roosevelt mean that the§e men are venal and vicious? Before the war of the rebellion, it was a common thing for the slaveholders to say that the slaves were kept in bondage "for their own good," and now comes Col. Roosevelt and uses the same argument in defending his highhanded action in depriv- ing colored men of representation -in his convention. And Roosevelt would leave to each individual Southern state "to determine what colored men ought to be allowed in and whom to exclude." How great the contrast between this statement and his "Door of Hope" letter. Theodore Roosevelt by his stand in the race question in the formation of his new party is revealed as one of the most dangerous foes the Afro-American people has ever had in this country. Would Oppose Bills Compelling Negroes to Educate Children. In the Alabama Legislature when a compulsory education law was being dis- cussed, Senator Thomas said he would oppose any bills that would compel Negroes to educate their children, for it had come to his knowledge that Negroes would give the clothing off their backs to send their children to school, while too often the white man, secure in his supremacy, would be indifferent to his duty. Tillman's Talk. "If a white man comes to vote, we ask him if he can read — if not, there is a provision of the law which makes a voter of a man who can understand a clause of the Constitution, and such a white man gets a simple little clause — as simple as ' ' Mary had a little lamb. ' ' But when the Negro comes along — well, if I was on the board he'd get the most involved clause in the whole Constitution. 'I can't under- stand that,' he says. 'All right, trot back to the cotton field.' And that's the end of it." Mr. Emmett J. Scott, who was appointed Commissioner to Liberia by President Taft has written a monograph, "Is Liberia Worth Saving?" which gives many interesting facts about the country and is a strong defense of the Liberians. 58 ROOSEVELT REPUDIATED. Afro-American Newspapers All Over the United States Bitterly Resent the Colonel's Attempt to Disfranchise the Race. No Self-Respecting Man Can Support the Bull Moose Candidate. Will Stick to Republican Party. Should Vote for Taft. Those Republicans who prefer the election of a Democrat may join the Bull Moose party and vote for Roosevelt, but if they wish to perpetuate Republican principles they should vote for Taft. — American Baptist, Louisville, Ky. Defeat Surely Awaits It. We are as much as told that the Bull Moose party is a white man's party. L,et it be such ; for we believe that defeat surely awaits it. — Western Outlook, San Francisco, Cal. Afro-American's Hat Kicked Out of Ring. Colonel Roosevelt by his Progressive party seeks to arouse race animosities and face hatred? It does not seem so if such a policy as he has adopted is carried out. This paper cannot endorse the Progressive party and the erratic doctrines it typifies in its platform. The Afro-American's hat is kicked out of the ring so far as the Progressive party is concerned. — Philadelphia Courant. A Step Toward Complete Disfranchisement. Colonel Roosevelt's position is a long step toward the complete disfranchisement of the colored man in this counrty. Any man who cannot realize this has a dull conception and a blunt intellect. — The Richmond (Va.) Planet. Stands for Repeal of War Amendments. A few years ago he was preaching political "equality" and a "square deal" for the Negro. To-day he practically stands for the disfranchisement of the Negro and the ultimate repeal of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution. — Independent, Denver, Col. Would be Unworthy if We Deserted the Republican Party. No political party has ever succeeded that was brought into existence for the benefit of one race. No political party can succeed that is not possessed of some heighth and breadth of principles. To desert the Republican party, which has done so much for our race would make us more than derelict, and unworthy of enjoying what this party has done for us. — The American, Wagoner, Okla. We Must Dispose of Roosevelt in November. Any colored man who will vote for Theodore Roosevelt after his Chicago action ought to be disfranchised. We must dispose of Roosevelt in November, and we call upon every colored man in this country to rise up in the dignity of your power and help retire to private life, once and for all this big wind jammer, who is going up and down the country sowing seeds of discord in a peaceful nation. — The Rhode Island Independent. A White Man's Party. The Bull Moose third party that was placed on the tablet of ice this week at Chicago, with Colonel Roosevelt as the big chunk, declared by their refusal to allow Negro delegates to have seats in this Convention that it was a white man's party. — Zanesville (Ohio) Advocate. Self-Respecting Men Will Resent Insult. Of course, a few preachers and political bishops and other mercenary professionals, who are out for a tainted dollar, will boot-lick and follow him, but the manly men, the self-respecting men, the manhood of the race, will resent the Colonel's insinuation and insult, and will vote the Democratic ticket before they will support Theodore Roosevelt. — The Atlanta Independent, Atlanta, Ga. Roosevelt's Amazing Utterance. The most amazing utterance ever made in the United States by a public man of com- manding position in politics was the speech which Roosevelt delivered before the Progressive Tuesday. In short, it means that he wishes to change our form of government through revolu- toin. — The Enterprise, Omaha, Neb. Will Be Repudiated by Every Self-Respecting Negro. His thin-veiled scheme to "catch 'em gwine and comin' " will deceive nobody but the fellow who wants to be fooled, and will be repudiated by every self-respecting Negro in this country. Senator Lafollette never spoke a greater truth than when he said Theodore Roosevelt is an opportunist, a policy man. He will go down in history as the most reckless political trickster of the twentieth century. — The Torchlight, Danville, Ky. Bull Moose Party Progressing Backward. The Bull Moose party of Progressives seem to be progressing backward, as far as th* Afro-Americans' interests are concerned. The Colorado Statesman voices the sentiments of the leading colored citizens of Colorado when it says that we are satisfied with the Republican ticket, led by President Taft, who has made good, and is worthy of our support. — Th« Colorado Statesman. Will Bitterly Resent Exclusion of the Race. Colonel Roosevelt and his third party will find that the Afro-American in the North and West resents bitterly the exclusion of his Southern brother from that party. — St. I,ouis Argus. 59 The White Man's Party. It is not too much to say that the moral sentiment of the nation has been shoeked, as it has not been since the delivery of Chief Justice Taney of the Dred Scott decision, in 1856, that *;it is held to be good law and precedent that the black man has no rights that the white man is bound to respect." It has been shocked by a reaffirmation of the sentiment by a former President of the Republic, in an open letter to Julian Harris, of Georgia, and by the endorsement of the sentiment by the National Convention of the Progressive party because Col Roosevelt insisted upon its adoption, that the Progressive pary is a White Man's party, in which a black man has no rights that a white man is bound to respect. — New York Age. Most Treacherous Act in American Politics The wholesale and drastic denunciation of the Colored men of the South in politics by Theodore Roosevelt when he finally could not use them is not only a most damaging act, but one of the most treacherous and contemptible in the annals of American politics. Colored Americans cannot trust so revengeful and treacherous a man. The denunciation is an act of hostility to the whole race. Let us all resenl it. — Boston Guardian. Afro-Americans Ruthlessly Barred. Colored men are ruthlessly barred from the councils of the party. The declaration that the colored man is to be given recognition is a poor and transparent makeshift. How can this recog- nition come except by a process of favortism on the part of the white voter is hard even to be imagined. — The Reformer, Durham, N. C. Roosevelt Seeking Cheap Popularity. The colored brother that can find any consolation in Col. Roosevelt's "confession of faith," is indeed far sighted. To our mind the Colonel is seeking cheap popularity in his line up against the race, but he will find on election day that the southern white people are not as changeable as he, and that he has not received an electoral vote from this section.— The Reporter, Staunton, Va. Colored Men "Must Go Away Back and Sit Down." The Negroes of the South have been practically eliminated from future conventions of the progressive party, for "hull moose" Roosevelt has said that "They must go away back and sit down" as he would not let Negro delegates from the South sit in his progressive convention. — The Citizen, Spokane, Washington. Roosevelt's Recall Down in Georgia. At present the progressive idea is rampant. The "initiative., referendum and recall" are words often spoken by the politicians and being used to tickle the ear of many, especially the thoughtless. The recall of it was beautifully illustrated in Columbus, Ga., on Tuesday when a mob entered the court house, took a sma'll colored boy from the officers after he was sentenced to imprisonment by the judge and lynched him. The mob was displeased at the decision of the judge, therefore the same was recalled. — Savannah, (Ga.) Tribune. Lincoln's Prophecy Fulfilled. Fifty or more years ago Abraham Lincoln issued a warning that will fit into the situation of to-day, and this is what he said: "A man with great genius and ambition will arise whose chief aim will be distinction. He will push his ambition to its farthest stretch. He may use his ambition for good, but he may attempt to tear down the republic. The people should be on their guard against him." No truer prophecy was ever made. The time and the man are at hand, and Lincoln's warning to the people to be on their guard against him should ring from every housetop before it is too late. — The Topeka (Kan.) Plaindealer. Colored Men Not Wanted. The attitude of the National Progressive party toward the Negroes of the South in a measure proves this. We tried to advise the colored men here to stand still and wait until they found out whether they were wanted before they went too far, but it seemed that they were bent on "butting in" were told that they were not wanted. — Interstate Reporter, Helena, Ark. Colored Men Given the Marble Heart. Colonel Roosevelt has ordered it that his new party shall be a white man's party. Conse- quently, Negro would-be Moosers from the South were given the marble heart at the national convention in Chicago this week. With both the Democratic and Progressive parties opposing him, ther remains nothing for the Negro to do but to support Mr. Taft. — Recorder, Seely, Texas. Fraught With Too Much Danger. It would be risking a chance fraught with too much danger to American industries and our sacred institutions for the American people to swing away from the Republican party to a new, inexperienced, untried organization, such as the Progressive party sets itself to be. There is too much involved to do such a thing at this time and under the circumstances. The American people have made their greatest strides forward in the last fifty years, and it has been the Republican party to which they have looked and on which they have depended for wise legislation, for wholesome laws and 'for protection to all of their large, varied commercial, industrial and other interests. — The Western Star, Houston and Dallas, Texas. Stream Can Not Rise Higher Than Source. It is claimed that a stream can rise no higher than its source; therefore, it is doubtful whether the enthused delegates in the Progressive convention will ever rife any higher than i'S source— Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. Thus it is evident from the very beginning that one r.eed not hope to find evidences of honesty in politics from his new party.— Philadelphia Tribune. How Do They Feel Now. How do the Negroes who have been yelling themselves hoarse for Teddy feel about their idol now? — Lexington Weekly News. 60 THE REAL ROOSEVELT Rev. Reverdy C. Ransom on His Former Friend, Theodore Roosevelt, at Anti- Roosevelt Meeting at Bethel A. M. E. Church, New York City. "When Col. Roosevelt's Convention adjourned, I felt like one feels when he is returning from the cemetery after having buried a cherished friend. For had he not buried there our hopes, which he had raised so high, acting both as executioner, undertaker and officiating priest?" "His promises are as unstable as water; his covenant with the people is a mask for personal ambition; his doctrines are used as beautiful traps to catch the noble, earnest and inspiring, but unsuspecting. He would make the Constitution easy of amendment, while openly advocating the nullification of the Fifteenth Amendment. He has proven faithless and the fight is on." "I can truthfully say that this action by Col. Roosevelt has caused me more pain and deep sorrow of heart than I have ever felt over the most revolting public outrage. When Col. Roosevelt struck the death knell to our hopes it dazed me like the stupefying stroke of a brutal blow. All through his Chicago convention I hoped against hope, that wise and righteous counsel would prevail." "I joined the large and representative body of colored men who went to the Republican National Convention to work for Roosevelt's nomination because I believed that his 'square deal,' his 'door of hope,' his 'all men up and not some down,' and the other catch phrases in his verbal repertoire were honestly meant to apply to black men as well as white. We were not disturbed by the third term outcry against him. What we want is just and equal treat- ment in this nation." "There is no need for Mr. Roosevelt's party in the South to exclude the Negro from politics and let 'the best white people' rule. The Democratic party has been attending to that business quite effectively for more than thirty years. There are no other white people in the South to whom he can appeal than these same white people who have already eliminated the Negro from politics. Will changing their party affiliations change their character? Or did they experience a change of heart at his Chicago convention? Did they all 'come through' when his convention adjourned with a shout, and have they received the spirit of brotherhood since they believed?" "Mr. Roosevelt would have us believe that he is following in the footsteps of Lincoln. Let us see: Lincoln emancipated us from physical slavery and invoked upon his act the blessing of Almighty God and the considerate judgment of mankind. Roosevelt has delivered us into political slavery, and invokes upon his act the consideration of Mr. Julian Harris, the division of the Southern white vote and the patient subjection of the Negroes to their political thraldom. When Lincoln would save the nation, he armed the Negro to fight for the preservation of the Union and for his own freedom. When Roosevelt would save the nation from the foes that he declares threaten its destruction, he would disarm the Negro of the ballot, the only effective weapon with which he may fight either for the salvation of his country or his own protection. Lincoln, as a man of Southern lineage, knew that the South. left to itself, would never emancipate the slaves and resisted the extension of the borders of slavery; Roosevelt, as a man of Southern lineage, knows the South, left to itself, will never voluntarily put the ballot in the Negroes' hands and will seek everywhere his exclusion from participation in the Government, yet he proclaims the one and invites the other." "Mr. Roosevelt neither created nor inspired the movement which in this country he assumes to direct and control as his own personal property, subject to the exigencies of his personal fortunes. This new sense of humanity, of human relations in organized society; this movement for industrial, social and political justice, is manifesting itself in England and on the Continent of Europe, under the leadership of men and women whose wisdom, singleness of purpose and uncompromising devotion to their ideals he would do well to imitate. Here is a new party which proclaims 'the right of the people to rule;' which proposes to devote itself to the cause of political and social justice. Yet, when it comes to deal with the Negroes, the people who suffer most from oppression, the people whose men, women and children are the most defenseless victims and the greatest sufferers from social and political injustice, Col. Roosevelt, the chief and leader of the herd, lifts his head, waves his antlers high in the air, and sounds the call, and the 'Bull Moose Party' runs amuck on the Negro question. Col. Theodore Roosevelt has no more right to take great truths for which noble men and women have toiled and suffered and seek to make their realization of local application, than he has to suspend the operation of the Ten Commandments toward a given class." "Mr. Roosevelt would assure us that he is not discriminating against us as a race, from the fact that Northern Negroes will not be excluded from the councils of his partv, that is to say, the Negro may join his party in those States where he may still exercise * the right to vote. But the Southern Negro must be excluded because he is "'venal,' 'the tool of un- scruplous white men,' etc. Mr. Roosevelt has had enough dealings with colored men to know, as he does know, that the Northern Negro is not one whit better than the Southern Negro, either in patriotism, character, wealth or intelligence. If Maryland, West Virginia or Missouri should enact a disfranchising law, then, according to Roosevelt, the Negroes in those States arc to be excluded from his party. If Mr. Roosevelt thinks that self-respecting Negroes will submit to this monstrous outrage, let me remind him that there are millions in our race who still possess the same fighting spirit and courage that saved his ungrateful life when he was a soldier in Cuba. Would the leader of 'any party in Great Britian dare make such a proposal to the Irish? If Theodore Roosevelt came from the Holy Hill of Zion instead of Sagamore Hill, he would still know that he was a deceiver masquerading in the garments of a saint of light, and spurning his proposals, we would refuse to follow him." 61 DESERTED BY ROOSEVELT. The Evening Post a Great New York Daily Newspaper Shows the Hypi- crisy and Duplicity of the Colonel in Dealing With the Afro-American. (From the Issue of August 8) Mr. Roosevelt had his way m Chicago. Despite the protests of -lane Addams and many others, the party of "progress, 1 ' which bates its hopes for succes on its programme of social justice, committed the injustice of throwing out the negro delegates from the South, declaring I for a "lily-white" policy there, and adopted its platform without a single reference of any kind | to the colored man. The terrible injustice done Inn the country over; the denial of civic and political rights guaranteed to him; his practically complete disfranchisement in the South — j ail of these things were forgotten because the apostle of justice himself hopes, with wh*,t .tane Addams herself called "statesmanlike (?) policy," to break up the solid South. So the Negroes, I e\ r en those who worked for Roosevelt in the laft Convention, were flung aside — just as he would l fling aside any body or set of men when it served his purpose to do so. Ihe Jews, themselves) to whom he has toadied and whom he has flattered by high appointments, he would discard \ as readily as he has Mr. Taft, Mr. Root, and his other tried tn« nds and Cabinet associates, should there be political profit to be gained by taking an anti-Semitic position. If there is any ; one group of men and women in this country suffering from oppression, it is the colored I people; tut the party of social justice is to think only of wrongs done to whites! Undoubtedly, Mr. Roosevelt is certain that before the campaign is far along he will win i lack the disaffected negroes. Yet we cannot think this so likely this time; for there is increasing independence of thought I among the educated colored people and a growing realization of their latent political power. 'ihat the whole episode will embitter the unhappy lot of the negroes of this country, let no one doubt. It is difficult for those who are enfranchised and socially free to realize how teirible the burden this race bears; how staggering the handicaps, and how helpless it is without the ballot to rectify its wrongs. Two recent happenings in the South are especially ominous. In Mooresville, N. C, a self-respecting colored carpenter bought real estate some years ago in a decent section of the city; when he began to build, his own house in it this spring the City Council passed an ordinance forbidding it. In Greensville, N. C, two brothers were prevented by a segregation ordinance from purchasing a $65,000 piece of property they had contracted for. The representatives of Anglo-Saxon culture who owned the property refused to return the $150 paid for the purchase-option on the ground that the brothers had broken their contract ! In Georgia, last June, Anne Bostwick, a negress who had been previously declared insane, killed the white woman who employed her. She was shot to death by a mob of white men, defenders of Anglo-Saxon superiority. It is, of course, impossible for the colored population to hold the officials responsible or to participate in the election of others who will uphold them in their constitutional rights as to the owning of property or guarantee them the protection of the law when accused of crime. They are helpless and hopeless, for they are without remedy. And the Progressive party, according to its leaders, says that, because there have been venal negro delegates at Republican conventions in the past (by whose votes he has hitherto been only too glad to profit), this oppressed race shall have no representatives in the party of social justice! A distinguished Russian professor, recently visiting in this country, on learning that ten millions of people suffer all the hardships of both the Russian peasant and the Russian Jew, exclaimed: "Heavens, how can they stand it?" The answer is that they must not stand it. Mr. Roosevelt's falsity to them will be of genuine value if it but stimulates them to further efforts in their own behalf, and strengthens their trowing determination to stand as a solid phalanx on behalf of their rights — life and liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Hot Language from Texas. Roosevelt has played h — 1 with the Negro at the Bull Moose convention. The Colonel has betrayed us. He frankly entrusts the movement to the "best white men of the South." — Plaindealer, Palestine, Texas. What Will the Colored Mooseities Do. Now that the Bull Moose Convention is over and the colored man has been put in the back yard what will the colored Mooseites do? They didn't pull as they thought with the Big Moose. — Progress, Boley, Oklahoma. Roosevelt Swallows His Own Words. Behold the man who has posed as the Afro-American's best friend! The man who has addressed them in their churches and assured them that it was he who would give them a square deal. In his declaration he swallows his own words and repudiates his own past. We could not expect any more from the rankest Southern Democrat. We hope our brethren in the border States of the North — Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and any others where they hold the balance of power — will not assist Colonel Roosevelt in build- ing up a white man's Progressive party in the South and a black and white man's party in the north. Let him accept the Afro-American vote universally or not at all. — The Re- former, Richmond, Va. For Copies of This Pamphlet Apply to REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE The Times Building Auditorium Hotel New York City. Chicago, 111. 62 INDEX. A PAGE Afro- American and the Two Parties. . 10-11 Afro- American Employees, Number. . . 13 Afro- American Farm Demonstrators. . 27 Afro- American Population of U. S. . . 28 Afro-Americans at the White House. . 15 Afro-Americans — Consular Service.... 16 Afro-Americans' Debt to Party 15 Afro- Americans — Diplomatic Service. . 16 Afro- Americans in High Places 14 Afro- Americans in Large Cities 28 Afro-Americans in the Government. . 12 Afro-Americans in United States. ... 29 Afro- Americans, Rights of 47 Alabama, Election Laws of 37 Alexander, N. W., Portrait of 44 Allensworth, Lt. Col., Portrait of 36 Anderson, Charles W., Portrait of . . . . 26 Assistant Attorney General 14 Auditor for Navy Department 17 B Black Codes 56 Booze, Mrs. Mary A., Portrait of . . . . 52 "Brotherhood" by Wm. J. Bryan. ... 11 Bureau of Education 24 Bush, John E., Portrait of 52 C Charles Summer, Gem from 11 Citizenship, Not Mistake to Give. ... 54 Colored Delegates True to Taft 51 Colored Men in Congress 51 Colored Voters and Roosevelt 61 Colored Race Has High Ideals 46 Commission to Liberia 35 Cottrill, Charles A., Portrait of 44 Crum, William D., Portrait of 26 D DareDevil Menace 46 Democratic Election Laws 37-39 Democratic Promises Broken 9 Democratic Sentiments 10 Department of Agriculture 27 Department of Justice 21 Disfranchisement 40 E Education in Democratic South 3 Education, Progress in 23 Election Laws Democratic States.... 37-39 F Farmers' Cotton Production 33 Farms of Colored Farmers 28 Foreword 2 Frederick Douglass on Lincoln 19 Freedmen's Hospital 25 Furniss, Henry W., Portrait of 20 G Georgia, Election Laws of 37 Government Printing Office 34 Grand Father Clause — Arkansas 39 H Hilles — Keynote of Campaign 9 Hoke Smith Opposes Negro Police. ... 54 Howard University 22 Hostile Democrats in Congress 43 I Inspired by Lincoln's Tomb 11 Interesting Facts 48 Interesting Items 55 J Jim-Crow Cars 45 Johnson, Henry L., Portrait of 20 63 PAGE Lee, Joseph E., Portrait of 44 Lewis, William H, Portrait of 20 Library of Congress 40 Louisiana, Election Laws of 38 Lynch, Maj. John R., Portrait of.... 36 Lynchings, Accounts of 42 M Males of Voting Age 30-32 McKinlay, Whitefield, Portrait of 26 Mississippi, Election Laws of 38 N Napier, J. C, Portrait of 20 Newlands (Dem.) for White Vote.... 53 North Carolina, Election Laws of.... 38 Number of Afro- American Employees. . 13 P Patent Office v . . 29 Peonage in the South 21 Pinchback, P. B. S., Portrait of 52 Post Office Department 29 President's Sacred Function 45 President Taft, Gems from 10 R Race Segregation 42 Recorder of Deeds 25 Register of the Treasury 16 Republican Answers Roddenbery. ... 50 Republican Party and Afro-American 3 Republican Party for Law and Order. 41 Republican Platform — Extracts 8 Republican Sentiments 10 Roddenbery' s Vile Speech 49 Roosevelt and Colored Voters 61 Roosevelt Changes Views 53 Roosevelt's Hostility to Race 57-62 Roosevelt Repudiated 59-62 S Sanders, Mingo, Appointment of.... 25 Scott, Emmett, J., Portrait of 52 Senator, First Afro-American 51 Sherman, James Schoolcraft 7 Sherman, Vice-President, Portrait.... 6 Smalls, Robert, Portrait of 26 South Carolina, Election Laws of . . . . 38 T Taft, President, an Appreciation .... 2 Taft, . President, Portrait of 4 Taft's Acceptance Speech-Extracts.... 4 Taft's Address to Political League. . 47 Taft Administration Wins 54 Taft Approves Howard University. . 22 Taft Advocates Rope for Lynchers. ... 41 Taft Denounces Mob Law 47 Taft Favors Equality of Opportunity. . 46 Taft for Constitution as it is 4 Taft Gives Mingo Sanders Place. ... 25 Taft Lauds Higher Education 22 Taft Lauds High Ideals of Race 46 Taft Opposes Disfranchisement 40 Taft's Sympathy for Race 27 Terrell, Robert H., Portrait of 64 The Real Roosevelt 61 The Open Door — Cartoon 64 Tillman's Talk — The Colored Voter. . 11-58 Treasury Department 16 Treasury Notes 18 Tyler, R. W., Portrait of 44 U Unfriendly Democratic Attitude 53 United States Army 19 V Vardman Approves Lynching 11 Virginia, Election Laws of 39 W Wickersham Wins Fight for Lewis. . 54 Wright, Herbert R., Portrait of.... 36 THE DOOR OF HOPE— 1902 1 ' I cannot consent to take the position that the door Of hope — the door of opportunity — is to be shut upon any man, no matter how worthy, purely upon the ground of race or color. "— THEODOEE EOOSEVELT. TEN YEARS LATER— 1912 * ' It would be much worse than useless to try to build up the Progressive party in* these Southern States, where there is no real Eepublican party, by appealing to the Negroes or to the men who in the past have derived their sole standing from lead- ing and manipulating the Negroes."— THEODOEE EOOSEVELT. LBAo'iS THE OPEN DOOR Adapted from the Philadelphia Ledger.